Update: 2011-09-22 02:30 PM +0800

TIL

Sanskrit English Dictionary

ke-055b2-2.htm ( {k}-{k:})

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{k} के
{k:} कैः

 

UKT notes
Kaikeyi Rama's step-mother Kailaasa mountain Keshi (Kesi) Ktu (ketuu)

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{k} के
p055b2-2

के (ke)
Skt: के (ke) - who - OnlineSktDict

केचित् (kechit.h)
Skt: केचित् (kechit.h) - some of them - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: {k-si.} - UHS-PMD0334

केतकी (ketakii)
Skt: केतकी (ketakii) - a fragrant flower - OnlineSktDict

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p055b3

केतू (ketuu) See Ktu (ketuu) in my notes.
Skt: केतू (ketuu) - The south Lunar Node aka Cauda Draconis (Latin) or Dragon's tail (English) - OnlineSktDict

केन (kena)
Skt: केन (kena) - by what - OnlineSktDict

केनचित् (kenachit.h)
Skt: केनचित् (kenachit.h) - by somebody - OnlineSktDict

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p055b3-2

केन्द्र (kendra)
Skt: केन्द्र (kendra) - center - OnlineSktDict

केन्द्रक (kendraka)
Skt: केन्द्रक (kendraka) - nucleus - OnlineSktDict

केन्द्रे (kendre)
Skt: केन्द्रे (kendre) - (adv) at the centre - OnlineSktDict

केमद्रुम (kemadruma)
Skt: केमद्रुम (kemadruma) - No planet flanking the Moon sign. Traditionally a sign of great misery and mental instability - OnlineSktDict

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केयूर (keyuura)
Skt: केयूर (keyuura) - armlet or bracelet worn on upper arm - OnlineSktDict
Pal: keyūra n. a bracelet or bangle for the arm - UPMT-PED078
Pal: {k-yu-ra.} - UHS-PMD0334

केवल (kevala)
Skt: केवल (kevala) - whole, pure - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kevala  adj. only, mere, alone, all, entire, whole; n. adv. only - UPMT-PED078
Pal: {k-wa.la.} - UHS-PMD0335

केवलं (kevalaM)
Skt: केवलं (kevalaM) - (adv) merely - OnlineSktDict

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p055b4

केवलैः (kevalaiH)
Skt: केवलैः (kevalaiH) - purified - OnlineSktDict

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p056top

केश (kesha)
Skt: केश (kesha) - hair - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kesa  m.  hair - UPMT-PED079
Pal: {k-a.} - UHS-PMD0335

केशव keśava
Skt: केशव (keshava) - O killer of the demon Kesi (KRishhNa) - OnlineSktDict
Skt: केशव keśava  m.  name of Krishna - SpkSkt 
Pal: kesava  m. Vishnu - UPMT-PED079
Pal: {k-a.wa.} - UHS-PMD0335

See my notes on Keshava and Keshi (Kesi).

केशवस्य (keshavasya)
Skt: केशवस्य (keshavasya) - of KRishhNa - OnlineSktDict

केशिनिशूदन (keshinishuudana)
Skt: केशिनिशूदन (keshinishuudana) - O killer of the Kesi demon - OnlineSktDict

केषु (keshhu)
Skt: केषु (keshhu) - in which - OnlineSktDict

केसरवर्णः (kesaravarNaH)
Skt: केसरवर्णः (kesaravarNaH) - orange colour - OnlineSktDict

केसरिन्  kesarin 
Skt: केसरिन्  kesarin  m.  lion - SpkSkt
Pal: kesarī  m.  a maned lion, horse - UPMT-PED079
Pal: {k-a.ri} - UHS-PMD0335

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{k:} कैः
p056top-2

कैः (kaiH) {k:}
Skt: कैः (kaiH) - by whom - OnlineSktDict

कैकेयी kaikeyi
Skt: कैकेयी kaikeyi - stepmother of Rama - Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikeyi 100625

UKT: {k:k-yi} - spelling derived from Skt. However, since Pali lacked the sound {k:}, Bur-Myanmar sources spelled the word as {k-k-yi} - fact to be checked - UKT100625

See my notes on Kaikeyi - Rama's step-mother

कैलास (kailaasa) .
Skt:  कैलास (kailaasa) - a Himalayan mountain, home of Shiva
Pal: kelāsa  adj. white; m. name of a mountain - UPMT-PED078
Pal: {k-la-a.} - UHS-PMD0335

See my note on Mount Kailash .

कैवल्य (kaivalya)
Skt: कैवल्य (kaivalya) - spiritual independence and freedom - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Kaikeyi

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikeyi 100625

Kaikeyi (Skt: कैकेयी, Kaikeyī, Malay: Kekayi, Thai: Kaiyakesi), in the Hindu epic Rāmāyaṇa, was the second of King Daśaratha's three wives and a queen of Ayodhyā. She was the mother of Bharata. The term Kaikeyī in Sanskrit means "belonging to the Kaikeyas", referring the ruling family of the Kekaya clan, to whom Kaikeyī belonged.

The daughter of the mighty Ashwapati, a long-term ally of Kosala, Kaikeyi married Dasaratha after the latter had promised her father that the son born of her womb would succeed him as King of Kosala. Dasaratha was able to make this promise as his first wife, Kausalya, was childless and not likely to produce a son of her own. Kaikeyi also remained barren for many years of marriage, as a result of which Dasaratha married Sumitra, the princess of Magadha, another kingdom with strong political ties to Kosala.

Kaikeyi's personality is worth examining and provides a strong clue to her motivations which later led to her insisting on the exile of her stepson from Ayodhya. As a young girl and the only sister to seven brothers, Kaikeyi grew up without a maternal influence in her childhood home. Her father had banished her mother from Kekaya after realizing that his wife's nature was not conducive to a happy family life. Amongst other things, due to a boon, Ashwapati was able to understand the language of the birds. However, this was accompanied by a caveat that if he ever revealed the content of bird speak to anyone, even his own mother, that he would forthwith lose his life. One day, the King and his Queen were strolling through the palace gardens when Ashwapati happened to overhear the conversation of a pair of mated swans. The conversation so amused him that he laughed heartily, instigating his wife's curiosity. Despite being aware of the fact that he could not divulge the content of the conversation to her, without losing his life, Kaikeyi's mother insisted on knowing the cause of the King's mirth. When Ashwapati realized that his wife cared little for his life or well-being, he had her banished to her parents' home.

Kaikeyi never saw her mother again. She was raised by her wet nurse, Manthara, who accompanied Kaikeyi to Ayodhya as a trusted maid upon her marriage to Dasaratha. Her father's treatment of her mother and the latter's subsequent exile led to Kaikeyi harboring a deep distrust of men in general and husbands in particular, and to considering their love as "fickle" and "passing" in nature. In addition, she was very insecure in her position as secondary consort to Dasaratha. She realized that Dasaratha deeply respected his Queen and Empress, Kausalya, and had only married her in order to produce the much-needed heir. To this end, Kaikeyi realized that her position in her husband's affections and esteem relied heavily on her ability to produce that heir. When she remained barren, she became increasingly insecure and realized that she could never win in her struggle for supremacy over Kausalya, although Manthara proved to be a great help in this regard. The older woman schemed constantly to further her own position at the Court. And since her position depended on Kaikeyi's status at Court, Manthara lost no opportunity to feed the young Kaikeyi's insecurity and jealousy of Kausalya, despite Dasaratha's obvious enchantment and love for all of his wives. It is important to point out that other sources state that Kaikeyi was not insecure, that she loved her other Queen sisters, and was the backbone of the group. She had saved King Dasaratha in battle and demonstrated her warrior courage.

Manthara's scheming paid off when Kaikeyi was able to convinced her husband to take her along with him during a military campaign against Samhasura, an enemy of both Indra and Dasaratha. During a fierce battle between the two, the wheel of Daśaratha's chariot broke and Samhasura's arrow pierced the King's armor and lodged in his chest. Kaikeyi, who was acting as Dasaratha's charioteer, quickly repaired the broken wheel and then drove the chariot away from the battle field. She nursed the wounded King back to health. Touched by her courage and timely service, Daśaratha offered her two boons. However, Kaikeyī chose to ask those boons later. In addition, she became his favorite wife and finally gained ascendancy over Kausalya.

Years passed and all three Queens produced sons. Rama, the son of Kausalya, was Dasaratha's favorite son. Rama was a loving, obidient child who followed his father's foot steps and revered Kaikeyi over his own mother, leading to the former's deep love and affection for him. When he turned 16 and was to be crowned King, Kaikeyi was delighted and as happy as she would have been had it been her own son, Bharata's, coronation. However, Manthara, worried that Kaikeyi would lose her status as Chief Queen at Court if Rama ascended the throne (making Kausalya the Queen Mother) decided to instigate trouble. She fueled Kaikeyi's dormant jealousy and envy of Kausalya, reminded her that her son's coronation would give Kausalya her former status as the most important of Dasaratha's Queens and would cut Bharata out of the royal lineage for ever. Finally, Kaikeyi's ardent desire to retain superior status over Kausalya motivated her to demand the two boons granted to her years earlier by Dasaratha and to further remind him of his promise to Ashwapati that the son born of her (Kaikeyi's) womb should succeed Dasaratha as King of Kosala. In order to ensure that Rama would be no threat to her son, Kaikeyi further demanded the exile of Rama from Ayodhya for 14 long years, reasoning that this length of time would be enough for Bharata to consolidate his position as King of Kosala.[1].

But Kaikeyī's desire never bore fruit. After sending his son into exile, a grief-striken Dasaratha died of a broken heart six days after Rama left Ayodhya. She came to blame herself for this death. Furthermore, Bharata swore never to ascend the throne as it was his older brother's birth right. He further blamed her for his father's death and is said never to have addressed her as "Mother" again. Kaikeyi was said to have died a lonely and broken-hearted woman, estranged from her son, his wife (the cousin of Rama's wife, Sita) and their two sons, her only grandchildren.

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Kailash , Mount

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Kailash 100427

Mount Kailash (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ, Kangrinboq or Gang Rinpoche; simplified Chinese: 冈仁波齐峰, Gāngrnbōq fēng; Skt: कैलाश पर्वत, Kailāśā Parvata) is a peak in the Gangdis Mountains, which are part of the Himalayas in Tibet. It lies near the source of some of the longest rivers in Asia: the Indus River, the Sutlej River (a major tributary of the Indus River), the Brahmaputra River, and the Karnali River (a tributary of the Ganges River). It is considered as a sacred place in five religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Ayyavazhi and the Bn faith. In Hinduism, it is considered to be the abode of Lord Shiva and as a place of eternal bliss. The mountain lies near Lake Manasarowar and Lake Rakshastal in Tibet.

UKT: It seems that none of the waters from Mt. Kailash reaches Myanmar. Yet there is a hill in southern Myanmar with a similar name. -- UKT 100427

There have been no recorded attempts to climb Mount Kailash; it is considered off limits to climbers in deference to Buddhist and Hindu beliefs. It is the most significant peak in the world that has not seen any known climbing attempts[1]

The word Kailāśā means "crystal" in Sanskrit. The Tibetan name for the mountain is Gangs Rin-po-che, meaning "precious jewel of snows". Another local name for the mountain is Tis (Tibetan: ཏི་སེ་) mountain, which derives from ti tse in the Zhang-Zhung language, meaning "water peak" or "river peak".

Chandra (1902: p. 32) in his dictionary identifies the entry for 'kai la sha' (Tibetan: ཀཻ་ལ་ཤWylie: kai la sha) which is a loan word from Sanskrit 'kailāsa' (Devanagari: कैलास).[2]

Religious significance : Hinduism

According to Hinduism, Lord Shiva, the destroyer of evil and sorrow, resides at the summit of a legendary mountain named Kailāśā, where he sits in a state of perpetual meditation along with his wife Pārvatī, the daughter of Himalaya.

According to one description in the Vishnu Purana, Mount Kailash is the center of the world, its four faces are made of crystal, ruby, gold, and lapis lazuli . It is the pillar of the world; is the center of the world mandala; and is located at the heart of six mountain ranges symbolizing a lotus . The four rivers flowing from Kailash then flow to the four quarters of the world and divide the world into four regions.[3] In fact the Indus, Brahmaputra, Sutlej (a major Indus tributary) and the Karnali (a major Ganges tributary) all rise near the mountain, making it the hydrographic nexus of South Asia.

The largest and most important rock-cut temple, Kailash Temple at Ellora, Maharashtra is named after Mount Kailash. Many of its sculptures and reliefs depict episodes relating to Lord Shiva and Maa Parvati, including Ravana's tale. (Ravana was a devotee of Lord Siva. Ramayana does not document Ravan shaking Kailasa mountain.) Ravana's mother had fallen ill, as they were great Lord Shiva devotees, he had attempted to carry the temple on his back to bring it closer to his mother. Shiva being stunned by his bravoure, had blessed him with immortality as Ravana had passed Lord Shiva's test on devotion.[4]

In Buddhism : Tantric

The Tantric Buddhists believe that Kailash is the home of the Buddha Demchok (also known as Demchog or Chakrasamvara),[5] who represents supreme bliss.

There are numerous sites in the region associated with Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava), whose tantric practices in holy sites around Tibet are credited with finally establishing Buddhism as the main religion of the country in the 7th-8th century CE.[6]

It is said that Milarepa (c. 1052-c. 1135 CE), champion of Tantric Buddhism, arrived in Tibet to challenge Naro Bn-chung, champion of the Bn religion of Tibet. The two magicians engaged in a terrifying sorcerers' battle, but neither was able to gain a decisive advantage. Finally, it was agreed that whoever could reach the summit of Kailash most rapidly would be the victor. While Naro Bn-chung sat on a magic drum and soared up the slope, Milarepa's followers were dumbfounded to see him sitting still and meditating. Yet when Naro Bn-chung was nearly at the top, Milarepa suddenly moved into action and overtook him by riding on the rays of the sun, thus winning the contest. He did, however, fling a handful of snow on to the top of a nearby mountain, since known as Bnri, bequeathing it to the Bnpo and thereby ensuring continued Bnpo connections with the region.[7][8][9]

The Bn, a religion which predates Buddhism in Tibet, maintain that the entire mystical region and the nine-story Swastika Mountain are the seat of all spiritual power.

Guru Nanak on Mount Kailash

Guru Nanak Dev, is one of the few people believed to have ascended the mountain peak.[10] It is widely believed that Guru Nanak conversed with the Nath Yogi's who meditated on the slopes of Kailash concerning their spiritual beliefs and meditation techniques.[1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.

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Keshava

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keshava 100428

Keshava (केशव keśava ) is a name of Krishna from within Hindu tradition. The name appears as the 23rd and 648th names in the Vishnu sahasranama. Lord Keshava is venerated by those persons wanting to avert bad luck, or ill omens. His consort is Keerti.[1]

UKT: More in the Wikipedia stub.

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Keshi (demon)

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keshi-demon 100428

In Hindu mythology, Keshi (Keśi, Nominative singular masculine from the root Keśin, literally "long haired") is the horse-demon, killed by Krishna, an avatar of god Vishnu. The demon was dispatched by Krishna's evil uncle Kamsa, who was destined to die at Krishna's hands.

Krishna is often praised as Keshava - the slayer of Keshi - in scriptures.

Legend

Keshi's legend is recounted in the tenth Book of the Bhagavata Purana (between 500 CE - 1000 CE). Kamsa, the evil king of Mathura and the maternal uncle of Krishna, was destined to killed by Krishna. In an attempt to avoid his death, Kamsa sent a series of demons to Gokula, where Krishna was staying with his foster-parents. After Krishna killed the bull demon Arishta - dispatched by Kamsa, the divine sage Narada confirmed to Kamsa that Krishna was his sister Devaki's child and girl-child that Kamsa had killed mistaking her as the child of Devaki, was in fact the daughter of Yashoda, Krishna's foster-mother. Infuriated hearing this, Kamsa called the demon Keshi and ordered him to kill Krishna and his brother Balarama.[1]

Keshi assumed the form of a huge horse, who galloped at the speed of thoughts, wore the earth with his hooves and scattered celestial vehicles and clouds in the sky with his mane. His neighing terrified the people. So, Krishna challenged Keshi to a duel, as the horse was creating havoc around Gokula. Keshi roared like a lion and charged towards Krishna striking him with the hooves. Krishna caught hold of Keshi's two legs and tossed him to a great distance. Recovering from his fall, the agitated Keshi opened his mouth and attacked Krishna. As soon as Krishna thrust his left arm into Keshi's mouth than all of Keshi's teeth fell. Soon, Krishna's arm suddenly started expanding. Keshi choke to death, as sweat flowed from his body, his eyes rolled and he struggled kicking his feet. As Keshi fell lifeless on the ground assuming his true demon form, the gods and Narada extolled Krishna. Narada in his panegyric thanks Krishna for slaying the horse-demon with such ease, by whose neighing alone, the gods were abandoning heaven. He further prophesies the great deeds that Krishna will perform later, including the killing of Kamsa.[2]

The fourth Book of the Vishnu Purana (between 1st century BCE to 4th century CE) also tells the story. However, Keshi first appears in the episode when Kamsa calls the host of his demons to kill all male children, once he realizes Krishna is born.[3] Chapters 15 and 16 of the fourth Book presents a detailed account of Keshi's death which parallels the Bhagavata Purana account. The narrative of Arishta's death, Narada's disclosure to Kamsa and the subsequent ordering of Keshi is the same.[4] Though the terror by Keshi on earth and sky and Krishna's challenge is the same, the fight starts directly with Keshi attacking Krishna with his opened mouth. The hand of Krishna choking Keshi at the same time, tearing his body into two halves. The splitting of Keshi's body is not told in Bhagavata Purana. Narada's eulogy and prophesy about Kamsa's death follows the account, where Narada decreed that Krishna would be called Keshava, the slayer of Keshi.[5] The Harivamsa from the epic Mahabharata also narrates that the incident in a similar fashion complete with Narada's praise identifying Krishna as Vishnu. the Vishnu Purana and the Harivamsa (1st - 2nd century BCE) tell that Keshi is last agent sent by Kamsa to kill Krishna, after Keshi's killing, Krishna and Balarama go to Mathura, where Kamsa is killed. However, the Bhagavata Purana describes the killing of the demon Vyoma sent by Kamsa, before he leaves for Mathura.[6]

The first century CE Buddhist writer Ashvaghosa also mentions about the killing of Keshi in a passage in his Saundarananda.[7]

Origins

Keshi, the "hairy one", first appears as a demon who attacks the unborn - in the Atharvaveda, though not in relation to Krishna. The passage reads: "Let us keep the black asura Keśin, born in the reed clump, snout-mouthed and all other harmful creatures, away from her genitals and her loins" [IAST original]. Although Phyllis Granoff argues that the Keshi - killed by Krishna - is a demon of childhood diseases, this hypothesis is not unanimous.[8] The tales of Keshi-vadha ("The killing of Keshi") was well-known in the Kushan period (60-375 CE).[9] Metropolitan Museum of Art parallels Krishna killing Keshi to the labour of Greek hero Heracles - slaying the horses of Diomedes, from which episode the former may be inspired.[10]

Commemoration

According the Malayam Bhagavata Purana, Krishna got the name Keshava as he slew Keshi.[11] Krishna is referred to as slayer of Keshi twice in the Bhagavata Gita by Arjuna, once as Keshava (1.30) and Keshi-nisudana (18.1). In the first chapter (1.30), addressing Krishna as slayer of Keshi, Arjuna expresses his doubts about war, at the same time, finds Krishna capable to destroy them. Here, Keshi represents false pride and the reference as slayer of Keshi by Arjuna expresses his humility. Keshi as a mad horse who created havoc in Vraja - also represents the wild horse of doubts who runs in the mind of a person. In the last chapter (18.1), Arjuna addresses Krishna as Maha-baho ("mighty-armed") paired with the slayer of Keshi epithet, reminding the reader how Krishna killed Keshi with his arms alone.[12] Vishnu sahasranama ("The Thousand names of Vishnu") calls him Keshava (Names 23, 648) and Keshitha (649) - the slayer of Keshi.[13] The fourth century play Mudrarakshasa also interprets the epithet Keshava as the slayer of Keshi.[7] Keshighat is a major bathing ghat along the river Yamuna in Vrindavan, where Krishna is believed to have overpowered Keshi.[14]

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Ktu

Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navagraha 100427

Ketu ( केतु) is the Lord of Descending/South lunar node. Ketu is generally referred to as a "shadow" planet. He is considered as Tail of the Demon Snake. It is believed to have a tremendous impact on human lives and also the whole creation. In some special circumstances it helps someone achieve the zenith of fame. He is Tamas in nature and represents supernatural influences.

Astronomically, Ketu and Rahu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere. Therefore, Rahu and Ketu are respectively called the north and the south lunar nodes. The fact that eclipses occur when Sun and Moon are at one of these points gives rise to the story of the swallowing of the Sun and the Moon.

The following is by UKT 100606: Based on Chapter 02. Nine Gods in Folk Elements in Burmese Buddhism, by Maung Htin Aung. Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: No (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, BURMA. 1981. - ch02-nine-gods

Ketu in Burmese-Myanmar {kait} and is considered to be the king of the planets and is given the central position of placement in the Burmese-Buddhist tradition of the Worship of the Nine Planets.

Just as the gods of Hindu mythology ride on particular animals as their 'vehicles', the nine Burmese planets have their own animal vehicles and are often represented by these animals.

UKT: the figures of animals, except the {pi~sa.ru-pa.} at the centre, are from Facets of Life at Shwedagon Pagoda in Colorful Myanmar by Daw Khin Myo Chit.

1. Sunday-planet, {ta.nn~ga.nw groh} rides on a Galon {ga.Loan}, the Burmese name for the Pali Garuda, a mythical bird, who is the eternal enemy of the Naga   {na.ga:}.
2. Monday-planet, {ta.nn~la groh} rides a tiger {kya:}.
3. Tuesday-planet, {n~ga groh} rides a {hkrn~th.} commonly translated as "lion".
4. Wednesday-planet, {boad~Da.hu: groh} rides an elephant with tusks, {hsing}.
5. Rahu-planet or Rahu, {ra-hu. groh} rides a tuskless elephant known as {heing: hsing} which is believed to be more powerful than elephants with tusks.
6. Thursday-planet, {kra-tha.pa.t: groh} rides a mouse (or rat) {krwak}.
7. Friday-planet, {thau:kra groh} rides a guinea pig {pu:}.
8. Saturday-planet, {sa.n groh} rides on a Naga {na.ga:}.
9. Kate-planet, {kait groh} rides on an 'Animal of Five Beauties', {pi-sa.ru-pa.} a mythical animal with the antlers of a deer, the tusks and trunk of an elephant, the mane of a lion, the body of a Naga, and the tail of a fish. The figures now being set are those of the gods of the planets astride their animals. The Puja-master places the figures of the Kate planet in the centre of the monastery but behind the Buddha. The other eight planets have their cardinal points and corners and each is placed behind an Arahat as shown in the table. From their cardinal points, and behind the Arahats, the figures of the planets face towards the Buddha.

UKT: There have been suggestions that the worship of the Planets in Myanmar had its origin in the worship of animals. If that is so, it would be helpful to look into the four animals assigned to the cardinal points. Starting with tiger of the East, it should be remarked that at least two Burmese nats have tigers as their vehicles, which may be traced to the belief in were-tigers similar to the werewolves.
   The next is the elephant of the South. The elephants were quite abundant in the forests of Myanmar from the north to the south and all the indigenous tribes would have been familiar with the largest land animal with their remarkable intelligence, memory and strength. Surely, this is an animal worthy to be worshipped by the prehistoric Burmese.
   Then, the ever present mouse (or even rat) of the West. The house mouse is one of the most intelligent animals which have found ways to co-exist with the humans. In spite of our efforts to eliminate them, they do survive and multiply in all ages and in all societies. (Exception: Arctic circle?). There have been instances of house mice becoming quite friendly to the humans. To cite one example, my father being the public health inspector at one time in his life was responsible to mouse eradication. In his old age, long time after being the cause of death to many mice, he became friends with a little mouse who came to make friends with him even accepting food from his hand. Surely, the mouse is worthy of respect.
   The last, the guinea pig of the North. These little animals makes excellent pets and companions to lonely children who would remember them with fondness and love expecting to be united after death.
   The animals of the corners, the garuda or galon is a bird of prey. There have been reports of very young infants being carried away for food by huge eagles, and surely the biggest bird of prey the galon is to be feared and secretly hated. The lion was probably unknown to the ancient Burmese - something foreign and something to be feared. The naga is of course the fictionalized king cobra - never friendly but always ready to warn the humans with its hisses. The last is the tuskless elephants which are quite rare and something totally unlike the useful elephants with tusks. (I still have to check the factual contents of my note -- 080829.

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