Update: 2011-09-22 12:48 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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{kn} कं
{ka.} क
{ka.ka.} कक
{ka.sa.} कच
{kic~} कच् /kɪc/ :
  differentiate from {kiS} /kɪs/ = English <kiss> (see DJPD16-301 for English pronunciation)
{ka.Ta.} कट

Note to Bur-Myan speakers: keep a look out for क्ष kS conjunct = क ् ष , spelled with a fricative dental {Sa.} and not with the plosive palatal {sa.}. In Bur-Myan and Pal-Myan they have the same grapheme - they are
differentiated only in Romabama.

UKT notes
Troublesome क्ष kS conjunct {kSa.} (NOT {kiS} /kɪs/ - note to be checked further)

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{kn} कं

क (ka)
Skt: क (ka) - what (use) is the - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कः kaḥ - m.  who - SpkSkt
Pal: ka - m. brahmā, fire, wind; mind. n. head, water, hair - UPMT-PED061
Pal: {ka.} - - UHS-PMD0275

कं (kaM)
Skt: कं (kaM) - whom - OnlineSktDict

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कंकन (ka.nkana)
Skt: कंकन (ka.nkana) - bracelet - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कङ्कण kaṅkaṇa - n. bracelet - SpkSkt
Skt: कटक  kaṭaka - n. bracelet of gold - SpkSkt

कंच्न (ka.nchna)
Skt: कंच्न (ka.nchna) - anyone (or someone) - OnlineSktDict

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कंटः (ka.nTaH)
Skt: कंटः (ka.nTaH) - (Masc, Nom.sing.) throat - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कण्ठ kaṇṭha (= क ण ् ठ ) - m. throat, neck - SpkSkt

कंठं (ka.nThaM)
Skt: कंठं (ka.nThaM) - neck - OnlineSktDict

कंठे (ka.nThe)
Skt: कंठे (ka.nThe) - in the neck - OnlineSktDict

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कंथा (ka.nthaa)
Skt: कंथा (ka.nthaa) - rags? - OnlineSktDict

कंस्य (kansya)
Skt: कंस्य (kansya) - bronze - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कांस्य kāṃsya - adj. consisting of brass. n. amalgam, bronze, brass - SpkSkt
Pal: kaṁsa - m. metal, bronze, a gong, bowl - UPMT-PED061
Pal: {kn-a.}/{kn-tha.} - - UHS-PMD0275

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{ka.} क

कः (kaH)
Skt: कः (kaH) - who - OnlineSktDict
Pal: ka - m. brahmā, fire, wind, mind. n. head, water, hair - UPMT-PED061
Pal: {ka.} - - UHS-PMD0275

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{ka.ka.} कक

ककुदि (kakudi)
Skt: ककुदि (kakudi) - hump of an ox - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ककुद् kakud - f. peak or summit, ensign or symbol of royalty, chief, head,
  any projecting corner or projection, hump on the shoulders of the Indian bullock,
  blip [visual signal on the scope] , hump - SpkSkt
Pal: kaku - m. the hump of a bull - UPMT-PED061
Pal: {ka.ku.} - - UHS-PMD0275

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{ka.sa.} कच


कच्चित् (kachchit.h)
Skt: कच्चित् (kachchit.h) - whether - OnlineSktDict
*Pal: kacci  part. perhaps, surely (used in interrogation) - UPMT-PED062
*Pal: {kic~si.} - UHS-PMD0277

कच्छप kacchapa (kachchhapa)
Skt: कच्छप (kachchhapa) m. tortoise - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कच्छप kacchapa m. tortoise, turtle - SpkSkt
Pal: kacchapa  m.  tortoise - UPMT-PED062
Pal: {kic~hsa.pa.} - UHS-PMD0277

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कज्जल (kajjala)
Skt: कज्जल (kajjala) - lamp black - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kajjala  m. a cloud; n. collyrium - UPMT-PED062
Pal: {kiz~za.la.} - - UHS-PMD0277

कञ्चुकः (kaJNchukaH)
Skt: कञ्चुकः (kaJNchukaH) - blouse - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कञ्चुक  kacuka - m.n. blouse - SpkSkt
Pal: kacuka - m. the slough of a snake, a jacket, sheath, envelope - UPMT-PED062
Pal: {ki~su.ka.} - - UHS-PMD0278

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{ka.Ta.} कट
not entd in OnlineSktDict

कट kaṭa
Skt: कट kaṭa - m. excess, superabundance, stretcher [med.], hearse or any  vehicle for
  carrying a dead body, throw of the dice in hazard, hip, plank, corpse, hip and loins,
  hollow above the hip or the loins, agreement, annual plant, environs, mat, grass,
  twist of straw of grass, burning-ground or place of sepulture, temples of an elephant - SpkSkt 
Pal: kaṭa - n. victory, female organs, a mat, season, grave - UPMT-PED063
Pal: {ka.Ta.} - - UHS-PMD0278

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कटः (kaTaH)
Skt: कटः (kaTaH) - m. carpet - OnlineSktDict

कटाक्ष (kaTaakSha) = क ट ा क ् ष
Skt: कटाक्ष (kaTaakSha) - glance - OnlineSktDict

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कटि (kaTi)
Skt: कटि (kaTi) - hip - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kaṭi  f. the small of the back, hip, waist - UPMT-PED063
Pal: {ka.Ti.} - UHS-PMD0278

कटिः (kaTiH)
Skt: कटिः (kaTiH) - waist - OnlineSktDict

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कटिकासन (kaTikaasana) UKT: Front-stretching posture - not available 100526
Skt: कटिकासन (kaTikaasana) - the front-stretching posture - OnlineSktDict

कटिवस्त्रम् (kaTivastram.h)
Skt: कटिवस्त्रम् (kaTivastram.h) - n. underwear - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कटिवस्त्र kaṭivastra - n. underwear - SpkSkt

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कटी (kaTii)
Skt: कटी (kaTii) - waist - OnlineSktDict

कटु kaṭu (kaTu)
Skt: कटु (kaTu) m. pungent, hot - OnlineSktDict
Skt: कटु kaṭu adj. ill-smelling - SpkSkt
Pal: kaṭu f.   black hellebore; adj. harsh, severe - UPMT-PEDict063
Pal: {ka.Tu.} -  - UHS-PMD0279

  Pal: कटुक  kaṭuka  adj.  harsh, severe, pungent, acrid;  m.  camphor;  f. black hellebore. - UPMT-PEDict063
Hellebores are commonly known as Christmas roses of the fam. Ranunculaceae. {hsaung:m:hka:} is an ingredient of official Myanmar Traditional medicine #25.
  A common hellebore planted in many Myanmar home is {nga.roap-kha:} Andrographis paniculata (fam. Acanthaceae). I have classified this plant in MMPDB as {hs:hka:kri: (nga.roat-hka:)} based on info from L-seik-shin 177, KS-TMN 030, and Nagathein 1-451 (Pix and excerpt from Shin Nagathein given for Bur-Myanmar readers). However there are controversies because of there are two plants known in Hindi as {kaal-mG} (Andrographis paniculata -- {hs:hka:kri: (nga.roat-hka:)}) and  {kyi.ra.ya.ta} (Swertia chirata -- {hs:hka:kri: (thin~Bau)}) - 100527.
  UKT addition: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrographis_paniculata 100623 gives the Skt name for Andrographis paniculata as Kalmegha, Bhunimba .


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कठिन (kaThina)
Skt: कठिन (kaThina) - tough - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kaṭhina  adj.  hard, solid, severe, difficult - UPMT-PED063
Pal: {ka.Hti.na.} - - UHS-PMD0280

कण kaṇa (kaNa)
Skt: कण (kaNa) - small bit - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kaṇa  m.  the fine red powder between the grain of rice and the husk,
  particle, bit, atom; adj. little, small - UPMT-PED063
Pal: {ka.Na.} - - UHS-PMD0280

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कणत्व (kaNatva)
Skt: कणत्व (kaNatva) - particularity - OnlineSktDict

कणिकापीता (kaNikaapiitaa)
Skt: कणिकापीता (kaNikaapiitaa) - a little droplet, drunk - OnlineSktDict

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कणीय (kaNiiya)
Skt: कणीय (kaNiiya) - particulate - OnlineSktDict

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कण्टकम् (kaNTakam.h)
Skt: कण्टकम् (kaNTakam.h) - n. thorns - OnlineSktDict

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कण्ठ kaṇṭha (kaNTha)
Skt: कण्ठ (kaNTha) - throat - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kaṇṭha  m. the neck, throat - UPMT-PED064
Pal: {kaN~Hta.} - UHS-PMD0281

कण्ठः (kaNThaH)
Skt: कण्ठः (kaNThaH) - (m) throat, neck - OnlineSktDict

कण्ठभूषा (kaNThabhuushhaa)
Skt: कण्ठभूषा (kaNThabhuushhaa) - (f) necklace - OnlineSktDict

कण्ठहारः (kaNThahaaraH)
Skt: कण्ठहारः (kaNThahaaraH) - (m) necklace - OnlineSktDict

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कण्डूयति kaṇḍuvati (kaNDuuyati)
Skt: कण्डूयति (kaNDuuyati) - to scratch - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kaṇḍuvati  v.  to scratch  -  UPMT-PED064
Pal: {kaN~u.wa.ti.} -UHS-PMD0282

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कण्डोलः kaṇḍola (kaNDolaH)
Skt: कण्डोलः (kaNDolaH) - m. a wooden basket - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kaṇḍola  m.  a basket, store-room - UPMT-PED064
Pal: {kaN~dau:la.} - not entered in UHS-PMD
*Pal: {kaN~au:li.ka} - UHS-PMD0282
   UKT: Note the spelling difference between UPMT and UHS in the second syllable. Need to recheck.

कणिक  kaṇika 

कणिका  kaṇikā 
Skt: कणिका  kaṇikā  f.  very small particle, a little - SpkSkt
Pal: kaṇikā  f.  a kind of plant, ear-ornament - UPMT-PED064

कणिश  kaṇiśa  m. ear [of corn]; n. an ear of corn - SpkSkt

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UKT notes

Troublesome क्ष kS conjunct

by UKT

Sanskrit-Devanagari क्ष kS conjunct (= क ् ष {kiS~} /kɪs/ English <kiss>) is used in many places where Pali-Myanmar would use {k~hka.} conjunct. This note must be checked further. - 100527

Note the place of the viram. If the viram were to kill:
क, we get क्ष kS conjunct which I propose to write in Bur-Myan as {kSa.} /kə.sa/ even though we may not be able to pronounce it.
ष, we get कष् - a syllable corresponding to {kiS~} /kɪs/ where the killed consonant is a fricative - similar to English <kiss> .
  The correspondence is not to {kic~} कच where the killed consonant is a plosive.

The conjunct क्ष kS, {kSa.}, is important for Buddhist because it is used to write the word for the class into which Gautama Buddha was born - Kshatriya (Hindi: क्षत्रिय, kṣatriya  from Skt: क्षत्र, kṣatra ).

Kashtriya meaning 'warrior' is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. शर्म ब्राहमणस्य वर्म क्षत्रियस्य गुप्तेती वैश्यस्य Prasar grhaysutras). It traditionally constituted the military and ruling elite of the Vedic-Hindu social system outlined by the Vedas and the Laws of Manu. (Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kshatriya 100622)

Speakers of Pali could not pronounce the fricative क्ष kS, {kSa.}, and accordingly substitute the word with khattiya (a prince or nobleman - UPMT-PED081) which on rendering into Burmese-Myanmar becomes {hkat~ti.ya.}. It seems that the word reflects a class of people - rulers and soldiers and does not reflect the ethnicity nor their language.

A parallel to the inability of the Pali speakers pronouncing Sanskrit is found in English speakers not being able to pronounce some combinations such as <kn>. They simply ignore the letter making it silent, e.g. <knee> /niː/ . The following is an excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silent_k 100622.

"A silent k occurs when the letter k occurs in a word but does not actually reflect the pronunciation of a voiceless velar plosive (/k/), or any sound for that matter. A silent k is quite common in the English language, most often preceding an n at the beginning of a word. There a rare exceptions to this rule; one example is Knoebels Grove located in Pennsylvania.

"In Old English the k was silent and so is. Cognates in other Germanic languages show that the k was likely a voiceless velar plosive in Proto-Germanic (compare German Knecht to knight, Knoten to knot, etc.)."

Go back trouble-kS-note-b

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