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Sanskrit English Dictionary

kRi-054b2-2.htm

from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

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(kRi) कृ

Noteworthy passages in this file:
• In early texts, such as Rig Veda, there are no references to Krishna, however ...

UKT notes
KripaKrishna • Krittika nakshatra • Kula

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(kRi) कृ
p054b2-2

• कृ (kRi) - {kRi.} (this is not to be confused with {kri}  क्र = क ् र )
Skt: कृ (kRi) - to do - OnlineSktDict

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p054b2-3

• कृच्छर (kRichchhara)
Skt: कृच्छर (kRichchhara) - difficult - OnlineSktDict

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p054b2-4

• कृडति (kRiDati)
Skt: कृडति (kRiDati) - (1 pp) to play - OnlineSktDict

• कृण्वंतः (kRiNva.ntaH)
Skt: कृण्वंतः (kRiNva.ntaH) - that person who is doing - OnlineSktDict

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p054b2-5

• कृत् (kRit.h) 
Skt: कृत् (kRit.h) - the man who did ( the destruction raakshasa kula) - OnlineSktDict

UKT: The word 'kula' seems to mean 'clan'. Thus Raakshasa Kula would be the
'Rakshasa clan or kingdom' referring to the battle between the northern Indians and Sri Lankans in the Indian epic Ramayana. See my notes on Kula {ku.la.} or {ku.la:} and Raksha {rak~hka.} - pronounced as / {yak~hka.}/.
   The following notes are from: Indian Caste System: Then and Now: Jati, Varna, Kula - http://ancientindians.net/jati-varna-rama-krishna/ 100626
" • The english word ‘Caste’ sometimes indicates Varna (category) and sometimes indicate jathi.
  • The sanskrit word kula, sometimes indicates caste and sometimes indicates dynasty. It has a lot to do with occupation and with birth. "
- UKT100626

• कृत (kRita)
Skt: कृत (kRita) - Done - OnlineSktDict

• कृतं (kRitaM)
Skt: कृतं (kRitaM) - done - OnlineSktDict

¤ कृतक  kṛtaka   m. adopted son - SpkSkt

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p054b3

• कृतकृत्यः (kRitakRityaH)
Skt: कृतकृत्यः (kRitakRityaH) - the most perfect in his endeavours - OnlineSktDict

• कृतधियां (kRitadhiyaaM)
Skt: कृतधियां (kRitadhiyaaM) - of sanes (stable-minded) - OnlineSktDict

• कृतज्ञ (kRitaGYa)
Skt: कृतज्ञ (kRitaGYa)  - Grateful - OnlineSktDict

• कृतज्ञता (kRitaGYataa)
Skt: कृतज्ञता (kRitaGYataa) - gratituade - OnlineSktDict

• कृताज्नजलिः (kRitaaJNjaliH)
Skt: कृताज्नजलिः (kRitaaJNjaliH) - with folded hands - OnlineSktDict

• कृतान्ते (kRitaante)
Skt: कृतान्ते (kRitaante) - in the conclusion - OnlineSktDict

• कृति (kRiti)
Skt: कृति (kRiti) - Direction - OnlineSktDict

• कृतेन (kRitena)
Skt: कृतेन (kRitena) - by discharge of duty - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्तिका (kRittikaa) See Krittika nakshatra in my notes.
Skt: कृत्तिका (kRittikaa) - Third nakshatra - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्य (kRitya)
Skt: कृत्य (kRitya) - Deed - OnlineSktDict

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p054b4

• कृत्यैः (kRityaiH)
Skt: कृत्यैः (kRityaiH) - that which was done - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्वा (kRitvaa)
Skt: कृत्वा (kRitvaa) - after doing - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्सनं (kRitsnaM)
Skt: कृत्सनं (kRitsnaM) - whole - OnlineSktDict

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p055top

• कृत्सनकर्मकृत् (kRitsnakarmakRit.h)
Skt: कृत्सनकर्मकृत् (kRitsnakarmakRit.h) - although engaged in all activities - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्सनवत् (kRitsnavat.h)
Skt: कृत्सनवत् (kRitsnavat.h) - as all in all - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्सनवित् (kRitsnavit.h)
Skt: कृत्सनवित् (kRitsnavit.h) - one who is in factual knowledge - OnlineSktDict

• कृत्सनस्य (kRitsnasya)
Skt: कृन्तति (kRintati) - all-inclusive - OnlineSktDict

• कृन्तति (kRintati)
Skt: कृन्तति (kRintati) - (6 pp) to cut - OnlineSktDict

• कृपः (kRipaH) See Kripa in my notes.
Skt: कृपः (kRipaH) - Krpa - OnlineSktDict

• कृपण (kRipaNa)
Skt: कृपण (kRipaNa) - adj. niggardly - OnlineSktDict

• कृपणाः (kRipaNaaH)
Skt: कृपणाः (kRipaNaaH) - misers - OnlineSktDict

• कृपया (kRipayaa)
Skt: कृपया (kRipayaa) - please - OnlineSktDict

• कृपयाऽपारे (kRipayaa.apaare)
Skt: कृपयाऽपारे (kRipayaa.apaare) - out of boundless compassion - OnlineSktDict

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p055b1

• कृपा (kRipaa)
Skt: कृपा (kRipaa) - compassion - OnlineSktDict

• कृपाछाया (kRipaachhaayaa)
Skt: कृपाछाया (kRipaachhaayaa) - care, protection - OnlineSktDict

• कृश (kRisha)
Skt: कृश (kRisha) - weak - OnlineSktDict

• कृशः (kRishaH)
Skt: कृशः (kRishaH) - (adj) thin - OnlineSktDict

• कृशति (kRishati)
Skt: कृशति (kRishati) - (6 pp) to plough - OnlineSktDict

• कृषक (kRishhaka)
Skt: कृषक (kRishhaka) - peasant - OnlineSktDict

• कृषकः (kRishhakaH)
Skt: कृषकः (kRishhakaH) - (m) farmer - OnlineSktDict

• कृषि (kRishhi)
Skt: कृषि (kRishhi) - plowing - OnlineSktDict

• कृषीवलः (kRishhiivalaH)
Skt: कृषीवलः (kRishhiivalaH) - (m) farmer - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्ण (kRishhNa). See Krishna in my notes.
Skt: कृष्ण (kRishhNa) - the eighth incarnation of Vishnu i.e. Krishna - OnlineSktDict

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p055b2

• कृष्णपक्ष (kRishhNapaksha)
Skt: कृष्णपक्ष (kRishhNapaksha) - Dark half of lunar month, also known as vadyapaksha - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्णं (kRishhNaM)
Skt: कृष्णं (kRishhNaM) - unto KRishhNa - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्णः (kRishhNaH)
Skt: कृष्णः (kRishhNaH) - the fortnight of the dark moon - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्णाजिनाम्बरौ (kRishhNaajinaambarau)
Skt: कृष्णाजिनाम्बरौ (kRishhNaajinaambarau) - (two) persons wearing the deer-skin - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्णात् (kRishhNaat.h)
Skt: कृष्णात् (kRishhNaat.h) - from KRishhNa - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्णासन (kRishhNaasana)
Skt: कृष्णासन (kRishhNaasana) - the Krishna posture - OnlineSktDict

• कृष्णे (kRishhNe)
Skt: कृष्णे (kRishhNe) - and darkness - OnlineSktDict

¤ कृष्णवर्त्मन्   kṛṣṇavartman  m.  fire
¤ कृष्णः गृहे अस्ति वा?   kṛṣṇaḥ gṛhe asti vā?   sent.   Is Mr. Krishna at home?
¤ कृपया एतत् कृष्णं सूचयतु   kṛpayā etat kṛṣṇaṃ sūcayatu   sent.   Would you kindly pass this on to Mr. Krishna?

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UKT notes

Kripa

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kripa 100424

Kripa ( Kṛpa ), also known as Kripacharya or Krupacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahābhārata. He was the son of Sharadvan and Janapadi. His twin sister Kripi married Drona, the weapons master to the court. He fought in the great battle of Kurukshetra for the Kaurava side. Afterwards, he was appointed to be the teacher and preceptor of Parikshit, the grandson of Arjuna. He is one of the seven Chiranjivin.

Gautama Maharishi had a grandson called Shardwan. Shardwan was born with arrows and was a born archer. He was from his early childhood, more interested in archery than in the study of the Vedas. He meditated and attained the art of all types of warfare. He was such a great archer that no one could defeat him. This created panic amongst the gods and specially Indra, the king of the gods felt the most threatened. He then sent a beautiful divine nymph from the heaven to distract the celibate saint. The nymph called Janpadi came to the saint and tried to seduce him in various ways. Shardwan was distracted and the sight of such a beautiful woman made him lose control. As he was a great saint he still managed to resist the temptation and controlled his desires. But his concentration was lost and he dropped his bow and arrows. His semen fell on some weeds by the wayside and divided the weeds into two from which a boy and a girl were born. The saint himself left the hermitage and his bow and arrow and went to the forest for penance. Coincidentally, King Shantanu, the great-grandfather of the Pandavas was crossing from there and saw the children by the wayside. One look at them and he realised that they were the children of a great archer Brahmin. He named them Kripa and Kripi and decided to take them back with him to his palace. When Shardwan came to know of this he came to the palace and revealed the identity of the children and performed the various rituals which are performed for the children of Brahmins. He also taught the children archery, Vedas and other shashtras and the secrets of the Universe. The children grew up to become experts in the art of warfare and this boy Kripa came to be known as Kripacharya who was now assigned the task of teaching the young princes all about warfare.

Go back Kripa-note-b

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Krishna

From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna 091031

Krishna (कृष्ण kṛṣṇa , pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] in classical Skt) is a deity worshipped across many traditions in Hinduism in a variety of perspectives. While many Vaishnava groups recognize him as an avatar of Vishnu, other traditions within Krishnaism consider Krishna to be svayam bhagavan, or the Supreme Being.

Krishna is often depicted as an infant, as a young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, [1] or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita. [2] The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions. [3] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the Supreme Being. [4] The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahābhārata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana.

The various traditions dedicated to different manifestations of Krishna, such as Vasudeva, Bala Krishna and Gopala, existed as early as 4th century BC. The Krishna- bhakti Movement spread to southern India by the 9th century AD, while in northern India Krishnaism schools were well established by 11th century AD. From the 10th century AD, with the growing Bhakti movement, Krishna became a favorite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna such as Jagannatha in Orissa, Vithoba in Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.

UKT: More in the original article.

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna 100426

Krishna (कृष्ण kṛṣṇa pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] in classical Sanskrit) is a deity worshipped across many traditions in Hinduism in a variety of perspectives. While many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu, other traditions within Krishnaism consider him to be svayam bhagavan, or the Supreme Being.

Krishna is often depicted as an infant, as a young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana,[1] or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.[2] The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions.[3] They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the Supreme Being.[4] The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahābhārata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana.

The various traditions dedicated to different manifestations of Krishna, such as Vasudeva, Bala Krishna and Gopala, existed as early as 4th century BC. The Krishna-bhakti movement spread to southern India by the 9th century AD, while in northern India Krishnaism schools were well established by 11th century AD. From the 10th century AD, with the growing bhakti movement, Krishna became a favorite subject in performing arts and regional traditions of devotion developed for forms of Krishna such as Jagannatha in Orissa, Vithoba in Maharashtra and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.

Etymology and names

The Sanskrit word kṛṣṇa means "black", "dark" or "dark-blue"[5] and is used as a name to describe someone with dark skin. Krishna is often depicted in murtis (images) as black, and is generally shown in paintings with a blue skin.

Some Hindu traditions often ascribe varying interpretations and powers to the names. Mahabharata's Udyoga-parva (Mbh 5.71.4) divides kṛṣṇa into elements kṛṣ and ṇa, kṛṣ (a verbal root meaning "to plough, drag") being taken as expressing bhū "being; earth" and ṇa being taken as expressing nirvṛti "bliss". In the Brahmasambandha mantra of the Vallabha sampradaya, the syllables of the name Krishna are assigned the power to destroy sin relating to material, self and divine causes.[6] Mahabharata verse 5.71.4 is also quoted in Chaitanya Charitamrita and Prabhupada in his commentary, translates the bhū as "attractive existence", thus Krishna is also interpreted as meaning "all-attractive one".[7][8] This quality of Krishna is stated in the atmarama verse of Bhagavatam 1.7.10.[9]

The name Krishna is also the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama and means the Existence of Bliss, according to Adi Sankara's interpretation.[10] Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets and titles, which reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Govinda, "finder of cows", or Gopala, "protector of cows", which refer to Krishna's childhood in Vraja.[11][12] Some of the distinct names may be regionally important; for instance, Jagannatha (literally "Lord of the Universe"), a popular deity of Puri in eastern India.[13]

Iconography

Krishna is easily recognized by his representations. Though his skin colour may be depicted as black or dark in some representations, particularly in murtis, in other images such as modern pictorial representations, Krishna is usually shown with blue skin. He is often shown wearing a yellow silk dhoti and peacock feather crown. Common depictions show him as a little boy, or as a young man in a characteristic relaxed pose, playing the flute.[14][15] In this form, he usually stands with one leg bent in front of the other and raises a flute to his lips, accompanied by cows, emphasising his position as the divine herdsman, Govinda, or with the gopis (milkmaids).

The scene on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, notably where he addresses Arjuna in the Bhagavad Gita, is another common subject for representation. In these depictions, he is shown as a man, often shown with typical god-like characteristics of Hindu religious art, such as multiple arms or heads, denoting power, and with attributes of Vishnu, such as the chakra or in his two-armed form as a charioteer. A 800 B.C. cave paintings in Mirzapur, U.P., North India, which show raiding horse-charioteers , one of whom is about to hurl such a wheel could potentially be identified as Krishna. [16].

Representations in temples often show Krishna as a man standing in an upright, formal pose. He may be alone, or with associated figures:[17] his brother Balarama and sister Subhadra, or his main queens Rukmini and Satyabhama.

Often, Krishna is pictured with his gopi-consort Radha. Manipuri Vaishnavas do not worship Krishna alone, but as Radha Krishna,[18] a combined image of Krishna and Radha. This is also a characteristic of the schools Rudra[19] and Nimbarka sampradaya,[20] as well as that of Swaminarayan faith. The traditions celebrate Radha Ramana murti, who is viewed by Gaudiyas as a form of Radha Krishna.[21]

Krishna is also depicted and worshipped as a small child (bāla kṛṣṇa, the child Krishna), crawling on his hands and knees or dancing, often with butter in his hand.[22][23] Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha of Orissa, Vithoba of Maharashtra[24] and Shrinathji in Rajasthan.

Literary sources

The earliest text to explicitly provide detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahābhārata which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu.[25] Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book (Bhishma Parva) of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to the warrior-hero Arjuna, on the battlefield. Krishna is already an adult in the epic, although there are allusions to his earlier exploits. The Harivamsa, a later appendix to this epic, contains the earliest detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth.

Around 150 BC, Patanjali [UKT: a noted grammarian after Pāṇini] in his Mahabhashya quotes a verse: "May the might of Krishna accompanied by Samkarshana increase!" Other verses are mentioned. One verse speaks of "Janardana with himself as fourth" (Krishna with three companions, the three possibly being Samkarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha). Another verse mentions musical instruments being played at meetings in the temples of Rama (Balarama) and Kesava (Krishna). Patanjali also describes dramatic and mimetic performances (Krishna-Kamsopacharam) representing the killing of Kamsa by Vasudeva.[26]

In the 1st century BC, there seems to be evidence for a worship of five Vrishni heroes (Balarama, Krishna, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba) for an inscription has been found at Mora near Mathura, which apparently mentions a son of the great satrap Rajuvula, probably the satrap Sodasa, and an image of Vrishni, "probably Vasudeva, and of the "Five Warriors".[27] Brahmi inscription on the Mora stone slab, now in the Mathura Museum.[28][29].

Many Puranas tells Krishna's life-story or some highlights from it. Two Puranas, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana, that contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna’s story and teachings are the most theologically venerated by the Gaudiya Vaishnava schools.[30] Roughly one quarter of the Bhagavata Purana is spent extolling his life and philosophy.

Yāska's Nirukta, an etymological dictionary around the 5th century BC, contains a reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of Akrura, a motif from well known Puranic story about Krishna.[31] Shatapatha Brahmana and Aitareya-Aranyaka, associate Krishna with his Vrishni origins.[32]

In early texts, such as Rig Veda, there are no references to Krishna, however some, like Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar attempted to show that "the very same Krishna" made an appearance, e.g. as the drapsa ... krishna "black drop" of RV 8.96.13.[31][33] Some authors have also likened prehistoric depictions of deities to Krishna. Thus, a steatite tablet excavated by Mackay in Mohenjo-daro 1927-31 depicts two persons holding a tree and tree god is extending his hands towards them, compared to the episode of Yamalarjuna-lila by the excavator.[34][35]

Life: birth

This summary is based on details from the Mahābhārata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana and the Vishnu Purana. The scenes from the narrative are set in north India [UKT: Northern India, south of the Himalayas, is of interest because many of the indigenous people were most probably Tibeto-Burmese speakers], mostly in the present states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Delhi and Gujarat.

Traditional belief based on scriptural details and astrological calculations gives the date of Krishna's birth, known as Janmashtami,[36] as either 18 or 21 July 3228 BCE.[37][38][39] Krishna belonged to the royal family of Mathura, and was the eighth son born to the princess Devaki, and her husband Vasudeva. Mathura was the capital of the Yadavas, to which Krishna's parents Vasudeva and Devaki belonged. The king Kamsa, Devaki's brother,[40] had ascended the throne by imprisoning his father, King Ugrasena. Afraid of a prophecy that predicted his death at the hands of Devaki's eighth son, he had locked the couple into a prison cell. After Kamsa killed the first six children, and Devaki's apparent miscarriage of the seventh, being transferred to Rohini as Balarama, Krishna took birth.

Since Vasudeva believed Krishna's life was in danger, Krishna was secretly taken out of the prison cell to be raised by his foster parents, Yasoda [41] and Nanda in Gokula. Two of his other siblings also survived, Balarama (Devaki's seventh child, transferred to the womb of Rohini, Vasudeva's first wife) and Subhadra (daughter of Vasudeva and Rohini, born much later than Balarama and Krishna).[42] According to Bhagavata Purana it is believed that Krishna was born without a sexual union, by "mental transmission" from the mind of Vasudeva into the womb of Devaki. Hindus believe that in that time, this type of union was possible for achieved beings.[36][43][44]

Childhood and youth

Nanda was the head of a community of cow-herders, and he settled in Vrindavana. The stories of Krishna's childhood and youth tell how he became a cow herder,[45] his mischievous pranks as Makhan Chor (butter thief), his foiling of attempts to take his life, and his role as a protector of the people of Vrindavana. Krishna is said to have killed the demons like Putana, sent by Kamsa for Krishna's life. He tamed the serpent Kāliyā, who previously poisoned the waters of Yamuna river, thus leading to the death of the cowherds. In Hindu art, Krishna is often depicted dancing on the multi-hooded Kāliyā. Krishna is believed to have lifted the Govardhana hill and taught Indra, the king of the devas and rain, a lesson to protect native people of Vrindavana from persecution by Indra and prevent the devastation of the pasture land of Govardhan. Indra had too much pride and was angry when Krishna advised the people of Vrindavana to take care of their animals and their environment that provide them with all their necessities, instead of Indra.[46][47] In the view of some, the spiritual movement started by Krishna had something in it which went against the orthodox forms of worship of the Vedic gods such as Indra.[48]

The stories of his play with the gopis (milkmaids) of Vrindavana became known as the Rasa lila and were romanticised in the poetry of Jayadeva, author of the Gita Govinda. These became important as part of the development of the Krishna bhakti traditions worshiping Radha Krishna.[49]

The prince

On his return to Mathura as a young man, Krishna overthrew and killed his uncle, Kamsa, after avoiding several assassination attempts from Kamsa's followers. He reinstated Kamsa's father, Ugrasena, as the king of the Yadavas and became a leading prince at the court.[50] During this period, he became a friend of Arjuna and the other Pandava princes of the Kuru kingdom, who were his cousins. Later, he took his Yadava subjects to the city of Dwaraka (in modern Gujarat) and established his own kingdom there. [51]

Krishna married Rukmini, the princess of Vidarbha, by abducting her from her wedding on her request. According to Bhagavata Purana, Krishna married with 16,108 wives,[52][53] of which eight were chief - collectively called the Ashta Bharya — including Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Kalindi, Mitravrinda, Nagnajiti, Bhadra and Lakshana. [54] [55] Krishna subsequently married 16,100 maidens who were being held in captivity by demon Narakasura, to save their honour. Krishna killed the demon and released them all. According to strict social custom of the time all of the captive women were degraded, and would be unable to marry, as they had been under the control of Narakasura, however Krishna married them to reinstate their status in the society. This wedding with 16100 abandoned daughters was more of a mass women rehabilitation. [56] In Vaishnava traditions, Krishna's wives are believed to be forms of the goddess Lakshmi — consort of Vishnu, or special souls who attained this qualification after many lifetimes of austerity, while his queen Satyabhama, is an expansion of Radha. [57]

Kurukshetra War and Bhagavad Gita

Once battle seemed inevitable, Krishna offered both sides the opportunity to choose between having either his army or simply himself alone, but on the condition that he personally would not raise any weapon. Arjuna, on behalf of the Pandavas, chose to have Krishna on their side, and Duryodhana, chief of the Kauravas, chose Krishna's army. At the time of the great battle, Krishna acted as Arjuna's charioteer, since it was a position that did not require the wielding of weapons.

Upon arriving at the battlefield, and seeing that the enemies are his family, his grandfather, his cousins and loved ones, Arjuna becomes doubtful about fighting. Krishna then advises him about the battle, with the conversation soon extending into a discourse which was later compiled as the Bhagavad Gita.[58

Later life

At a festival, a fight broke out between the Yadavas who exterminated each other. His elder brother Balarama then gave up his body using Yoga. Krishna retired into the forest and sat under a tree in meditation. While Vyasa's Mahābhārata says that Krishna ascended to heaven, Sarala's Mahabhārata narrates the story that a hunter mistook his partly visible left foot for a deer and shot an arrow wounding him mortally.[59][60][61]

According to Puranic sources,[62] Krishna's disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE.[63] Vaishnava teachers such as Ramanujacharya and Gaudiya Vaishnavas held the view that the body of Krishna is completely spiritual and never decays as this appears to be the perspective of the Bhagavata Purana. Krishna never appears to grow old or age at all in the historical depictions of the Puranas despite passing of several decades, but there are grounds for a debate whether this indicates that he has no material body, since battles and other descriptions of the Mahabhārata epic show clear indications that he seems to be subject to the limitations of nature.[64] While battles apparently seem to indicate limitations, Mahabharatha also shows in many places where Krishna is not subject to any limitations as through episodes Duryodhana trying to arrest Krishna where His body burst into fire showing all creation within Him.[65] Krishna is also explicitly told to be without deterioration elsewhere.[66]

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In other religions: Jainism

The most exalted figures in Jainism are the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Krishna, when he was incorporated into the Jain list of heroic figures presented a problem with his activities which are not pacifist or non-violent. The concept of Baladeva, Vasudeva and Prati-Vasudeva was used to solve it. The Jain list of sixty-three Shalakapurshas or notable figures includes amongst others, the twenty-four Tirthankaras and nine sets of this triad. One of these triads is Krishna as the Vasudeva, Balarama as the Baladeva and Jarasandha as the Prati-Vasudeva. He was a cousin of the twenty-second Tirthankara, Neminatha. The stories of these triads can be found in the Harivamsha of Jinasena (not be confused with its namesake, the addendum to Mahābhārata) and the Trishashti-shalakapurusha-charita of Hemachandra.[96]

In each age of the Jain cyclic time is born a Vasudeva with an elder brother termed the Baladeva. The villain is the Prati-vasudeva. Baladeva is the upholder of the Jain principle of non-violence. However, Vasudeva has to forsake this principle to kill the Prati-Vasudeva and save the world. The Vasudeva then descends to hell as a punishment for this violent act. Having undergone the punishment he is then reborn as a Tirthankara.[97][98]

Buddhism

The story of Krishna occurs in the Jataka tales in Buddhism,[99] in the Ghatapandita Jataka as a prince and legendary conqueror and king of India.[100] In the Buddhist version, Krishna is called Vasudeva, Kanha and Keshava, and Balarama is his younger brother, Baladeva. These details resemble that of the story given in the Bhagavata Purana. Vasudeva, along with his nine other brothers (each son a powerful wrestler) and one elder sister (Anjana) capture all of Jambudvipa (many consider this to be India) after beheading their evil uncle, King Kamsa, and later all other kings of Jambudvipa with his Sudarshana Chakra. Much of the story involving the defeat of Kamsa follows the story given in the Bhagavata Purana.[101]

As depicted in the Mahābhārata, all of the sons are eventually killed due to a curse of sage Kanhadipayana (Veda Vyasa, also known as Krishna Dwaipayana). Krishna himself is eventually speared by a hunter in the foot by mistake, leaving the sole survivor of their family being their sister, Anjanadevi of whom no further mention is made.[102]

Since Jataka tales are given from the perspective of Buddha's previous lives (as well as the previous lives of many of Buddha's followers), Krishna appears as one of the lives of Sariputra, one of Buddha's foremost disciples and the "Dhammasenapati" or "Chief General of the Dharma" and is usually shown being Buddha's "right hand man" in Buddhist art and iconography.[103] The Bodhisattva, is born in this tale as one of his youngest brothers named Ghatapandita, and saves Krishna from the grief of losing his son.[100] The 'divine boy' Krishna as an embodiment of wisdom and endearing prankster is forming a part of worshipable pantheon in Japanese Buddhism.[104]

Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'ís believe that Krishna was a "Manifestation of God," or one in a line of prophets who have revealed the Word of God progressively for a gradually maturing humanity. In this way, Krishna shares an exalted station with Zoroaster, Buddha, Jesus Christ, the Báb, and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh.[105]

Ahmadiyya Islam

Members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believe Krishna to be a great prophet of God as described by their founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Ghulam Ahmad also claimed to be the likeness of Krishna as a latter day reviver of religion and morality whose mission was to reconcile man with God.[106] Ahmadis maintain that the term Avatar is synonymous with the term 'prophet' of the middle eastern religious tradition as God's intervention with man; as God appoints a man as his vicegerent upon earth. In Lecture Sialkot, Ghulam Ahmed wrote:

Let it be clear that Raja Krishna, according to what has been revealed to me, was such a truly great man that it is hard to find his like among the Rishis and Avatars of the Hindus. He was an Avatar — i.e., Prophet — of his time upon whom the Holy Spirit would descend from God. He was from God, victorious and prosperous. He cleansed the land of the Aryas from sin and was in fact the Prophet of his age whose teaching was later corrupted in numerous ways. He was full of love for God, a friend of virtue and an enemy of evil.[106]

Other

Krishna worship or reverence has been adopted by several new religious movements since the 19th century, and he is sometimes a member of an eclectic pantheon in occult texts, along with Greek, Buddhist, Biblical and even historical figures.[107] For instance, Édouard Schuré, an influential figure in perennial philosophy and occult movements, considered Krishna a Great Initiate; while Theosophists regard Krishna as an incarnation of Maitreya (one of the Masters of the Ancient Wisdom), the most important spiritual teacher for humanity after Buddha.[108][109] Krishna was canonized by Aleister Crowley and is recognized as a saint in the Gnostic Mass of Ordo Templi Orientis.[110][111] Reviewers linked the imagery of the blue-skinned Na'vi in James Cameron's Avatar film to Krishna as one of possible conceptual prototypes for the film's Hindu theme.[112][113][114]

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Kula

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kula 100626
Note by Wiki: The truthfulness of this article or section has been questioned.

Kula (or Gula and Kola) (Thai: กุลา, Khmer: កូឡា) are a Tai descendant, who immigrants from Yunan, China, came into Northeast Thailand from the Mons states and Shan states in Myanmar and from Northern Thailand during the last few decades of 19th century. The Kula once lived mainly in Pailin, Cambodia as refugees during French Colonial of Cambodia in order as gems trader. The role of Kula or Toongsoon, one of the various actor involved in the region, played in the development of the money economy and commercialization in this region and the effect of development had on the different social group during the period concerned here. The Kula minority ethnic had been noted as the richest ethnic group in Cambodia.

UKT: The above para refers to modern times and has nothing to do with the word 'kula' mentioned in OnlineSktDict. The rest of the extensive article in Wikipedia may thus be ignored. - UKT100626

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Raksha

From Ancient Indians: http://ancientindians.net/rakshasas/ 100626

The Rakshasas are one of the tribes of Sri Lanka., today. They look exactly like you or me. So do the Yakkas (Yakshas) and the Veddhas. So if you were looking for strange teeth and many heads and magical powers, they do not exist now-a-days. Valmiki described Ravana as Dasanana or Dasagreeva, which literally means one with 10 heads or 10 throats. This has been interpreted by some as meaning that he knew the 4 vedas and 6 sastras, and by others as meaning that he had 10 crowns, one for each place that he ruled.

Rakshasa Lineage as per Uttarakanda:

The word Raksha means to protect. In the Uttarakanda of the Valmiki Ramayana, it is said that the tribes who agreed to protect the waters, at Brahma’s request were the Rakshasas and the those who wanted to eat  (yaksha) became the Yakshas. The story of the Rakshasas that follows, is what Agastya and other rishis told Rama after his coronation.

Heti and Praheti were two Rakshasas who were as strong as Madhu and Kaitabha. Praheti was into Tapas and Dharma. Heti wanted a good wife. Yama was a king of the South. He had a sister called Bhaya (which means fear). Heti married Bhaya and they had a son called Vidyutkesa (lightning  hair)! Heti got Vidyutkesa married to Salakatankata, the daughter of Sandhya (twilight, Surya’s wife).

They had a son called Sukesa (good-haired), whom they happily neglected, while they had a good time. Siva and Parvati saw the neglected child and blessed him with quick growth, long life, wealth and a city that could fly though the air. A gandharva called Gramani, gave his daughter Devavati in marriage to Sukesa.

Sukesa had three strong and powerful sons called Mali, Sumali and Malyavan. Vidyutkesa himself was half Rakshasa and half Deva. (Remember that Bhaya was Yama Deva’s sister). Sukesa was therefore one fourth rakshasa and 3/4ths Deva. (His mother was Sandhya’s daughter). So Mali, Sumali and Malyavan were 1/8 rakshasa, 3/8 deva and half gandharva. Look at the racket that people today make of jathis – when the sources were so mixed up!
The three brothers were learned, handsome, powerful, united and devout. They did Tapas to please Brahma. Then they went about attacking and defeating the devas and the asuras. They asked Viswakarma to build a city for them. He asked them to occupy the city of Lanka, that he had already built out of gold, at the command of Indra. It was situated on the central peak of the Trikuta hill. It was 30 yojanas wide and 100 yojanas long. 3000 sq yojanas could be 192000 sq miles or 18750 sq miles, depending on whether a yojana means 8 miles or 2.5 miles. Modern Sri Lanka is 25000 sq. miles in area.

A gandharva lady called Narmada had three beautiful daughters and she gave them in marriage to the three brothers. So now, they had many children and they were 1/16 rakshasa, 3/16 deva, 12/16 gandharva. The lady we are interested in is Kaikasi the daughter of Sumali and his wife Ketumati (because she is Ravana’s mother).

They continued to trouble the Devas, Nagas, Yakshas and the Rishis. The Devas and Rishis begged Siva to help them, but he had a soft spot for Sukesa and his children. So they turned to Vishnu. Vishnu is also called Upendra or the younger brother of Indra. Vishnu was always on the side of the Devas and the Brahmanas and helped them without any hesitation.

The Manavas (ordinary humans without any magical powers), always looked to the Devas (who represent light) and Brahmans (who represent knowledge) to bless and protect them. So manavas too, were always on the side of the Devas and the Brahmanas.

Rakshasa fight with Vishnu.

Malyavan, told his brothers, that the Devas now had Vishnu, the slayer of Hiranyakasipu, on their side and he was prepared to fight for them. But his brothers would not be dissuaded. They decided to carry the war into the enemy camp and along with Jambha, Vrtra and other powerful Rakshasas, they attacked Amaravathi the capital of the Devas.

Vishnu mounted Garuda, his vahana, and there was a terrible battle. Garuda also fought bravely in the battle. The dark Vishnu wielded his bow, which was called the Saranga and killed the Rakshasas in thousands. Then he blew his mighty conch, the Panchajanya. (Yes, it is the same one, that Sri Krishna blew in the Mahabharata war.) He killed Mali with his discus. (Yes, again, it was the same Sudarshana Chakra). Sumali and Malyavan retreated to Lanka, with such forces as they had left with them. Then, out of fear of Vishnu, Sumali and the other Rakshasas abondoned Lanka and went to Rasatala. (Is Rasatala a magical world or is it someplace in Africa (Somalia) or Thailand or Assam or Malaysia., we do not know at this time. We know for certain that the had boats, and we know by Valmiki’s Ramayanam., that they had planes (vimanas) as well. So we will just take rasatala as rasatala and we will suspend our judgments about its location for now).

Sri Lanka from Kubera to Ravana:

Lanka was now given to Vaisravana, Kubera to live in and rule and he lived there with the Yakshas. Kubera himself is often described as a Yaksha, but his father Visrava was a brahman and his maternal grandfather Bharadwaja was a Brahman Rishi. Kubera had not a drop of Yaksha blood, he was merely the ruler of the Yakshas. Visrava was the son of Rishi Pulastya who was the son of Brahma. In Sri Lanka there is a place called Polonnaruwa where there is a statue of Rishi Pulastya. There is also a cave of Visravas’s great-grandson with a Brahmi Inscription.

Sumali wondered what he could do to improve the future of his race. At that time he saw Vaisravana, the son of Visrava, whom we now know as Kubera, the lord of North and the lord of wealth. Kubera was flying in the Pushpaka Vimana and had come to visit his father. Sumali thought that if his beautiful daughter married Visrava, then he would also have such wonderful grandsons. So he asked his daughter Kaikasi to approach Visrava. It is said that Kaikasi was as beautiful as Lakshmi and devoted to her father.

Visrava blessed Kaikasi with 3 sons, Ravana, Kumbhakarna and Vibhishana and 1 daughter, Soorpanakha. Visrava was a brahman and the son of Pulastya and the grandson of Brahma. So Ravana and the other were half brahman, 1/32 rakshasa, 3/32 deva, 3/8 gandharva. So they were more brahmana than they were rakshasa genetically, anyway. It is said that Ravana was made ambitious by his mother, that Kumbhakarna was cannibalistic and that Vibhishana was pious. But all of them did learn the Vedic rituals and did perform yajnas and other such practices when they ruled Lanka later.

Ravana and his brothers did tapas to please Brahma, their great grand father, at Gokarna, which is on the west coast (near modern Mangalore). Brahma ruled other than manavas and vanaras no one would kill Ravana.

With that boon, Ravana asked Kubera to leave Lanka and took his Pushpaka Vimana. (Kubera resettled in Alakapuri, modern Nepal). Ravana defeated the Devas, including Yama, who was held back by Brahma’s word. At a later time, his son Meghanatha defeated Indra and became Indrajit.

Ravana’s father as a brahmana did yajnas and offered havis to the Devas. Ravana fought with the Devas and won. His father married women who had been given to him by their fathers. Ravana was disrespectful of the wishes of women and attempted to force his attentions on them, even when they did not like him. Ravana specifically earned the dislike of Valmiki and of thousands of generations of Indians because he carried our gentle mother Sita Devi away by force and made her life miserable. Even though Sri Rama forgave him at the time of Ravana’s death, the rest of India still does not and his effigy is still burnt every year. In India, it is still common to call someone Rakshasa or Rakshasi if they do something bad.  At one time, though, they could fly planes, sail boats and create music and beautiful literature.

Sri Lankans, then and now respect him as a good ruler and king, who made one mistake and even name children after him. There are some Sri Lankan groups who believe that Ravana was a student of Kapila, an incarnation of Buddha, and that he never carried Sita away. They maintain that Sita’s proven chastity also proves that Ravana was innocent. They hold a low opinion of Vibhishana and see him as a traitor who invited invaders. The ten heads are considered 10 crowns of Ravana. Children in Lanka (Sinhala) are named after Ravana, but not after Vibhishana. Some Sri Lankans hold Ravana lived 5000 years ago. Other sources say that there were 3 Ravanas in Lanka, all at different times.

UKT: More in the original article.

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