Update: 2011-09-22 02:33 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{kya.} क्य - no entry
{kra.} क्र
{kla.} क्ल
{kwa.} क्व

UKT notes
• Heron pose • Kartikeya aka Murugan (the lance carrying god)

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{kra.} क्र

UKT: This conjunct is colloquially pronounced in Bur-Myan as {kya.}. You'll hear the rhotic sound mostly in Pali-Myan and in some dialects such as that of the western coast in Rakhine state.

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• क्रकचः (krakachaH) = क ् र क च ः
Skt: क्रकचः (krakachaH)  m.  a saw - OnlineSktDict
Skt: क्रकच krakaca m. saw = क ् र क च
Pal: kakaca - m. a saw - UPMT-PED061

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• क्रतवः (kratavaH)
Skt: क्रतवः (kratavaH) - god deeds: sacrifices - OnlineSktDict

• क्रतुः (kratuH)
Skt: क्रतुः (kratuH) - Vedic ritual - OnlineSktDict

• क्रान्ति (kraanti)
Skt: क्रान्ति (kraanti) - revolution - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रान्तिकारक (kraantikaaraka)
Skt: क्रान्तिकारक (kraantikaaraka) - revolutionary - OnlineSktDict

• क्रामति (kraamati)
Skt: क्रामति (kraamati) - to cross - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रिकर (krikara)
Skt: क्रिकर (krikara) - one of the vital airs, causes coughing and sneezing - OnlineSktDict

• क्रिय (kriya)
Skt: क्रिय (kriya) - action - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियः (kriyaH)
Skt: क्रियः (kriyaH) - and activities - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियते (kriyate)
Skt: क्रियते (kriyate) - is done - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियन्ते (kriyante)
Skt: क्रियन्ते (kriyante) - are done - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियमाण (kriyamaaNa)
Skt: क्रियमाण (kriyamaaNa) - someone in the process of doing - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियमाणनि (kriyamaaNaani)
Skt: क्रियमाणनि (kriyamaaNaani)  - being done - OnlineSktDict

• क्रिया (kriyaa) : note the use of 'middle dot' in Romabama to represent the central vowel /ə/
Skt: क्रिया (kriyaa) - Purificationary rite, religious ceremony - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kriyā  f. action, the verb - UPMT-PED080
Pal: {kri.ya}/ {ka·ri.ya}

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• क्रियाः (kriyaaH)
Skt: क्रियाः (kriyaaH) - performances - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियातत्तव (kriyaatattva)
Skt: क्रियातत्तव (kriyaatattva) - action principle - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियाभिः (kriyaabhiH)
Skt: क्रियाभिः (kriyaabhiH) - by pious activities - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियाविशेष (kriyaavisheshha)
Skt: क्रियाविशेष (kriyaavisheshha) - pompous ceremonies - OnlineSktDict

• क्रियाशील (kriyaashiila)
Skt: क्रियाशील (kriyaashiila) - active - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रीडति (kriiDati)
Skt: क्रीडति (kriiDati) - plays - OnlineSktDict

• क्रीडा (kriiDaa)
Skt: क्रीडा (kriiDaa) - play - OnlineSktDict

• क्रीडानक (kriiDaanaka)
Skt: क्रीडानक (kriiDaanaka) - (n) a toy - OnlineSktDict

• क्रीडालुः (kriiDaaluH)
Skt: क्रीडालुः (kriiDaaluH) - (m) sportsman - OnlineSktDict

• क्रीणाति (kriiNaati)
Skt: क्रीणाति (kriiNaati) - to buy - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रूर (kruura)
Skt: क्रूर (kruura) - cruel - OnlineSktDict

• क्रूरग्रह (kruuragraha)
Skt: क्रूरग्रह (kruuragraha) - Malefic planet - OnlineSktDict

• क्रूरान् (kruuraan.h)
Skt: क्रूरान् (kruuraan.h) - mischievous - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रोध (krodha)
Skt: क्रोध (krodha) - anger - OnlineSktDict

• क्रोधं (krodhaM)
Skt: क्रोधं (krodhaM) - anger - OnlineSktDict

• क्रोधः (krodhaH)
Skt: क्रोधः (krodhaH) - and anger - OnlineSktDict

• क्रोधात् (krodhaat.h)
Skt: क्रोधात् (krodhaat.h) - from anger - OnlineSktDict

• क्रोशति (kroshati)
Skt: क्रोशति (kroshati) - (1 pp) to cry - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रौच (krau.ncha) 
Skt: क्रौच (krau.ncha) - a mountain said to be pierced by Kartikeya - OnlineSktDict

See my note on Kartikeya aka Murugan .

• क्रौचपति (krau.nchapati)
Skt: क्रौचपति (krau.nchapati) - kArtikeya - OnlineSktDict

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• क्रौज्न्च (krauJNcha)
Skt: क्रौज्न्च (krauJNcha) - a heron - OnlineSktDict

• क्रौज्न्चासन (krauJNchaasana)
Skt: क्रौज्न्चासन (krauJNchaasana) - the heron posture - OnlineSktDict

See my note on heron posture


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{kla.} क्ल

• क्लिन्न (klinna)
Skt: क्लिन्न (klinna) - wet - OnlineSktDict

• क्लेदयन्ति (kledayanti)
Skt: क्लेदयन्ति (kledayanti) - moistness - OnlineSktDict

• क्लेश kleśa (klesha)
Skt: क्लेश (klesha) - m. distress - OnlineSktDict
Skt: क्लेश kleśa - m.  arduousness, suffering, pain, trouble, affliction, distress, grief, troublesomeness, hardship, onerosity - SpkSkt

UKT: Compare with Buddhist {ki.lι-ώa.} - UKT101227

• क्लेशः (kleshaH)
Skt: क्लेशः (kleshaH) - trouble - OnlineSktDict

€ क्लेशक kleśaka - adj. giving pain, afflicting, annoying, troublesome,
  distressing - SpkSkt

€ क्लेशन kleśana - n. disgust - SpkSkt

• क्लैब्यं (klaibyaM)
Skt: क्लैब्यं (klaibyaM) - impotence - OnlineSktDict

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{kwa.} क्व

• क्व (kva)
Skt: क्व (kva) - where - OnlineSktDict
Pal: kva  adv. where?
Pal: {kwa.}

• क्वचित् (kvachit.h)
Skt: क्वचित् (kvachit.h) - at any time - OnlineSktDict

• क्वथति (kvathati)
Skt: क्वथति (kvathati) - to boil - OnlineSktDict

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• (kSHamataa) competency

€ आप्ति  āpti  f.  competence
€ अभिज्ञानपत्त्र  abhijρānapattra  n.  certificate of competence

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UKT: The following entries seem to belong to the previous folder:
k-conjuncts - kS-conj-219top2.htm

• क्षकिरणः (kShakiraNaH)
Skt: क्षकिरणः (kShakiraNaH) - (m) X-ray - OnlineSktDict

• क्षयरोगः (kShayarogaH)
Skt: क्षयरोगः (kShayarogaH) - (m) tuberculosis - OnlineSktDict

€ क्षयरोग  kṣayaroga  m.  tuberculosis

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• क्षेत्राधिकारः (kShetraadhikaaraH)
Skt: क्षेत्राधिकारः (kShetraadhikaaraH) - (m) jurisdiction - OnlineSktDict


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UKT notes

Heron pose : Krounchasana

From Ann Pizer, About.com Guide, updated 090416
http://yoga.about.com/od/yogaposes/a/heron.htm 100405

Type of Pose: Seated

Benefits: Stretches the hamstring and calf muscles.


1. Begin in staff pose - dandasana.

2. Bring the left leg into hero pose - virasana, taking care to keep the left foot pointing straight back and the knee hugging the midline.

3. Bend the right knee and bring the right foot to the floor close to your right sit bone.

4. Lift the right foot and hold onto it with both hands.

5. Lean the torso back slightly and anchor the shoulder blades onto your back and the arms into the shoulder sockets.

5. Slowly straighten the right leg to about a 45-degree angle.

6. Hold five to 10 breaths and then repeat on the other side.

Beginners: Use a strap around the raised foot if you cannot straighten the leg completely.

Go back heron-pose-note-b

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Kartikeya aka Murugan

From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murugan 100430

Murugan or Mayuri Kandasamy (Tamil: முருகன், Malayalam: മുരുകന്‍) called Subrahmanya (Kannada: ಸುಬ್ರಹ್ಮಣ್ಯ,Telugu: సుబ్రమణ్య స్వామి) is a popular Hindu deity among Tamil Hindus, and is worshipped primarily in areas with Tamil influence, especially South India, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Mauritius. But in Sri Lanka, Hindus as well as Buddhists revere a highly sacred Buddhist and Hindu shrine Katharagama temple (also in Sinhala "Katharagama Devalaya") dedicated to him and situated deep south in the country.[1] Similarly Chinese in Penang, Kuala Lumpur of Malaysia also pray Lord Murugan during Thaipusam.

Lord Murugan is more popular in South India compared to other parts of India. He is the God of war and the patron deity of the Tamil land (Tamil Nadu).[2] Like most Hindu deities, He is known by many other names, including Senthil, Saravaṇa, Kārthikeya (meaning 'son of Krittika' ), Arumugam or Sanmuga (meaning 'one with six faces'), Kumāra (meaning 'child or son'), Guhan (meaning 'cave-dweller'), Skanda (meaning 'that which is spilled or oozed, namely seed' in Sanskrit),[3] Subrahmaṇya, Vēlaṇ and Swaminatha.[4] and called as Kadamban in Melakadambur means who wearing Kadambu flowers in his shoulders.

Historical development

Archaeological findings of pottery and relics in several places in Tamil Nadu, particularly in Adichanallur had ideographic inscriptions of this name and show signs that Murugan worship was prevalent at least as early as 10th century B.C, if not earlier.[5]

According to noted epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, the ideographs signify a brave warrior capable of killing evil demons to save the devoted.[6]

Sangam literature

Tolkappiyam, possibly the most ancient of the extant Sangam works, glorified Murugan, " the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent," as " the favoured god of the Tamils."[7]

The Sangam poetry divided space and Tamil land into five allegorical areas (tinai) and according to the Tirumurugarruppatai( circa 400-450 A.D.) attributed to the great Sangam poet Nakkiirar, Murugan was the presiding deity the Kurinci region (hilly area). (Tirumurugaruppatai is a deeply devotional poem included in the ten idylls (Pattupattu) of the age of the third Sangam).

Tamil Sangam Literature (early centuries A.D.) mentions Murugu as a nature spirit worshipped with animal sacrifices and associated with a non-Brahmanical priest known as a Velan, a name later used to refer to the deity himself. The worship of Murugu often occurred in the woods or in an open field, with no particular associated structure. The rituals practiced included the Veriyaattu, a form of ritual-trance-dancing, which is still a common part of Murugan worship in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Malaysia. Murugu was believed to hold power over the chaotic and could be appeased by sacrifices and Veriyaattu to bring order and prosperity.

The other Sangam era works in Tamil that refer to Murugan in detail include the Paripaatal, the Akananuru and the Purananuru. One poem in the Paripaatal describes the veneration of Murugan thus:

We implore thee not for boons of enjoyment or wealth,
But for thy grace beatific, love and virtuous deeds.

According to the Tamil devotional work, Thiruppugazh,

"Murugan never hesitates to come to the aid of a devotee when called upon in piety or distress". [UKT Ά]

In another work Thirumurukkarrupatai, he is described as a god of eternal youth;

His face shines a myriad rays light and removes the darkness from this world.[8]

Sanskrit literature

The references to Murugan in Sanskrit literature can be traced back to the first millennium BCE. There are references to Subrahmanya in Kautilya's Arthashastra, in the works of Patanjali, in Kalidasa's epic poem the Kumarasambhavam and in the Sanskrit drama Mricchakatika. The Kushanas, who governed from what is today Peshawar, and the Yaudheyas, a republican clan in the Punjab, struck coins bearing the image of Skanda. The deity was venerated also by the Ikshvakus, an Andhra dynasty, and the Guptas.[9] The worship of Kumāra was one of the six principal sects of Hinduism at the time of Adi Shankara. The Shanmata system propagated by him included this sect. In many Shiva and Devi temples of Tamil Nadu, Subrahmaṇya is installed on the left of the main deity.

Sati, the consort of Shiva immolated herself at the Daksha Yagna, which was later destroyed by Shiva. Sati was reborn as Uma, or Parvati the daughter of the mountain king Himavaan (the Himalayas). Shiva withdrew himself from the universe and engaged himself in yogic meditation in the Himalayas.

In the meanwhile, the demon Surapadman ravaged the earth and tormented its beings. It was realized by the gods that only the son born of Shiva could lead the gods to victory over Tarakasuran, Surapadman and their demon companions. They plotted with Kamadeva, to shoot a flower arrow at Shiva, as he sat in meditation, so as to make him fall in love with Parvati. When Kama aimed his arrow, Shiva opened his third eye and burned Kama to ashes instantly.

The sparks of the fiery seed of Shiva were unbearable; even the fire God Agni could not bear them; this fire was then transported by the river Ganga into the Saravana forest into a pond called the Saravana Poigai (located at mouths of river Ganga), where the sparks became six children. They were raised by the six Krittika or Kartika - the stars that make up the Pleiades, earning the name Karthikeya. Parvati combined these six babies into one with six faces, i.e. Shanmukha or Arumugan. Since he was born in the Saravana he was also called 'Saravanabhava'.

Murugan became the supreme general of the demi-gods then escorted the devas and led the army of the devas to victory against the demons. The six sites at which Karthikeya sojourned while leading his armies against Surapadman are Tiruttanikai, Swamimalai, Tiruvavinankudi (Palani), Pazhamudirsolai, Tirupparamkunram and Tiruchendur. All these sites have ancient temples glorified by the Tamil poems of Tirumurugaatruppadai of the Sangam period (circa the 3rd century AD).And these six sites collectively came to be known as "Arupadai Veedu" (Lang:Tamil), it means the six battle camps of the Lord.

Hindu epics

The first elaborate account of Karthikeya's origin occurs in the Mahabharata. In a complicated story, he is said to have been born from Agni and Shiva, after the latter impersonated the six of the seven wives of the Saptarishi (Seven Sages). The actual wives then become the Pleiades. Karthikeya is said to have been born to destroy the Asura Mahisha.[10] (In later mythology, Mahisha became the adversary of Durga.) Indra attacks Karthikeya as he sees the latter as a threat, until Shiva intervenes and makes Karthikeya the commander-in-chief of the army of the Devas. He is also married to Devasena, Indra's daughter. The origin of this marriage lies probably in the punning of 'Deva-sena-pati'.It can mean either lord of Devasena or Lord of the army (sena) of Devas.

The Ramayana version is closer to the stories told in the Puranas discussed below.


The Atharva Veda describes Kumaran as 'Agnibhuh' or son of Agni, the fire god. The Satapatha Brahmana refers to him as the son of Rudra and the ninth form of Agni. The Taittiriya Aranyaka contains the Gayatri mantra for Shanmukha. The Chandogya Upanishad refers to Skanda as the "way that leads to wisdom". The Baudhayana Dharmasutra mentions Skanda as 'Mahasena' and 'Subrahmanya.' The Aranya Parva canto of the Mahabharata relates the legend of Kartikeya Skanda in considerable detail. The Skanda Purana is devoted to the narrative of Kartikeya. [9]


Though slightly varying versions occur in the Puranas, they broadly follow the same pattern. By this period, the identification of Shiva/Rudra with Agni, that can be traced back to the Vedas and Brahmanas, had clearly made Karthikeya the son of Shiva.[citation needed]

The Skanda Purana narrates that Shiva first wed Dakshayani (also named Sati), the granddaughter of Brahma, and the daughter of Daksha [King of the Himalaya]. Daksha never liked Shiva, who, symbolizing destruction and detachment, begs for food, dances in a graveyard smeared with ashes, and has no possessions, not even good clothes for himself. Daksha publicly insults Shiva in a Yagna ceremony, and Dakshayani immolates herself.  [UKT Ά ]

UKT: The incident at the Yagna ceremony where Sati jumped into the sacrificial fire to commit suicide has given me the idea [ just an idea which you may laugh at ] that Daksha, the King of the Himalaya signified the people from the area just below the Himalaya - the Tibeto-Burman speakers. They would not have liked the Dravidian speakers from the south signified by their god Shiva. I am interpreting this episode as the clash of two cultures, that of the thibilant non-rhotic speakers of the north and the sibilant rhotic speakers from the south. The thibilant non-rhotic speakers finally got the upper hand when a different group of sibilant rhotic speakers, the Indo-European speakers signified by Vishnu came in from the north-west. Then it became the clash of three cultures. Because of this the Vedic culture and language - the aksharas of which were written in the Asoka aka Brahmi script - became corrupt and that Panini had to codified it for the sibilant rhotic speakers to continue reciting the Vedic hymns. It was then Sanskrit emerged. It explained how the Myanmar script has many graphemes similar to the Brahmi, because northern Myanmar remained undisturbed by Sanskritization until Anawratha appeared on the scene. -- UKT110824

The Yagna is destroyed although protected by all the other Gods and the rishis. Taraka believed that, because Shiva is an ascetic and his earlier marriage was conducted with great difficulty, his remarriage was out of the question, hence his boon of being killed by Shiva's son alone would give him invincibility.

The Devas manage to get Shiva married to Parvati (who was Dakshayani, reborn), by making Manmatha (also known as Kama), the God of love awaken him from his penance, but Manmatha incurred the Lord's [Shiva] wrath indicated by the opening his third eye - "Netri Kann" , and being destroyed and resurrected. Shiva hands over his effulgence of the third eye used to destroy Manmatha to Agni, as he alone is capable of handling it until it becomes the desired offspring. But even Agni, tortured by its heat, hands it over to Ganga who in turn deposits it in a lake in a forest of reeds (shara). The child is finally born in this forest (vana) with six faces - eesanam, sathpurusham, vamadevam, agoram, sathyojatham and adhomugam. He is first spotted and cared for by six women representing the Pleiades - Kritika in Sanskrit. He thus gets named Karthikeya. As a young lad, he destroys Taraka. He is also called Kumara (Sanskrit for "youth")

Divine legends

Given that legends related to Murugan are recounted separately in several Hindu epics, some differences between the various versions are observed. Some Sanskrit epics and puranas indicate that he was the elder son of Shiva. This is suggested by the legend connected to his birth; the wedding of Shiva and Parvati being necessary for the birth of a child who would vanquish the demon Taraka. Also, Kartikeya is seen helping Shiva fight the newborn Ganesha, Shiva's other son, in the Shiva Purana. In the Ganapati Khandam of the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, he is seen as the elder son of Shiva and Ganesha as the younger. In South India, it is believed that he is the younger of the two. A Puranic story has Ganesha obtain a divine mango of knowledge from Narada winning a contest with Murugan. While Murugan speeds around the world thrice to win the contest for the mango, Ganesha circumambulates Shiva and Parvati thrice as an equivalent and is given the mango. After winning it, he offers to give the mango to his upset brother. After this event, Ganesha was considered the elder brother owing as a tribute to his wisdom.

In many traditions, Murugan is seen as a bachelor. Many of the major events in Murugan's life take place during his youth, and legends surrounding his birth are popular. This has encouraged the worship of Murugan as a child-God, very similar to the worship of the child Krishna in north India. Other traditions have him married to two wives, Valli and Deivayanai.


Kartikeya symbols are based on the weapons - Vel, the Divine Spear or Lance that He carries and His mount the peacock. He is sometimes depicted with many weapons including: a sword, a javelin, a mace, a discus and a bow although more usually he is depicted wielding a sakti or spear. This symbolizes His purification of human ills. His javelin is used to symbolize His far reaching protection, His discus symbolizes His knowledge of the truth, His mace represents His strength and His bow shows His ability to defeat all ills. His peacock mount symbolizes his destruction of the ego.

His six heads represent the six siddhis bestowed upon yogis over the course of their spiritual development. This corresponds to his role as the bestower of siddhis.

UKT: South Indian Hindu god Murugan's Divine Spear or Lance reminds me of the divine spear carried by King Anawratha of Pagan. He alone amongst the Burmese king had a Sanskrit sounding name and he alone carries a "throwing spear" [<lance> is a longer spear and is not suitable for throwing.] That Anawratha carried his 'magic' spear all times is shown by the episode when the king in anger threw his spear at Kyansittha which finally broke the 'father-son' relationship between the two heroes of Pagan. The usual weapon carried by Burmese kings is the short double edged sword or dagger known as {ώϋn-lyak}. Perhaps he had a Mon ancestry could be explained why he imported the Theravada form of Buddhism from Thaton, the Mon kingdom, in the south. It also explains why his son, Sawlu, had a Mon wet nurse. - UKT 100501

• {lhδn} - n. spear, lance, javelin - MED2010-465
• {ώϋn-lyak} - n. four-edged dagger which forms part of Myanmar regalia - MED2010-518
  UKT: See illustration on MED2010-351
• {ώδn-lak} - n. mason's trowel - MED2010-503
• {θ:maung:} - n 1. lance adorned with a long tassel used by the royal cavalry
  - MED2010-615 .
  UKT: It is actually a throwing spear - the tassel is probably for guiding the spear. See illustration on MED2010-613

UKT: More in Wikipedia article.

Go back kartikeya-note-b

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End of TIL file