Update: 2011-09-22 02:46 PM +0800


Sanskrit English Dictionary


from: Online Sanskrit Dictionary, February 12, 2003 . http://sanskritdocuments.org/dict/dictall.pdf  090907

Downloaded, set in HTML, and edited by U Kyaw Tun, M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. No copyright. Free for everyone.

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{gau:} गो
{gau} गौ
{gra.} ग्र
{gra} ग्रा
{gla} ग्ला : {la.hsw:}-medial

UKT notes
Cow-face posture Govinda Krishna (stub) Rhoticity

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{gau:} गो

गो (go)
Skt: गो (go) - cow/ bull - OnlineSktDict
Pal: go - m. a bull; f. cow, the earth, speech - UPMT-PED087
Pal: {gau:} - UHS-PMD0370

गोओष्ठी (goshhThii) (sp?)
Skt: गोओष्ठी (goshhThii) - (f) seminar - OnlineSktDict

गोत्र (gotra)
Skt: गोत्र (gotra) - family, race - OnlineSktDict
Pal: gotta  n. family, lineage - UPMT-PED084
Pal: {gaut~ta.}   - UHS-PMD0371

गोपनीय (gopaniiya)
Skt: गोपनीय (gopaniiya) - (adj) confidential - OnlineSktDict

गोमुख (gomukha)
Skt: गोमुख (gomukha) - musical instrument resembling a cow's face - OnlineSktDict

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गोमुखाः (gomukhaaH)
Skt: गोमुखाः (gomukhaaH) - horns - OnlineSktDict

गोमुखासन (gomukhaasana)
Skt: गोमुखासन (gomukhaasana) - the cow-faced posture - OnlineSktDict

See my notes on Cow-faced posture

गोरक्षासन (gorakShaasana)
Skt: गोरक्षासन (gorakShaasana) - the cowherd posture - OnlineSktDict

गोविन्द (govinda) .
Skt: गोविन्द (govinda) - Lord KRishna - OnlineSktDict
Pal: govinda  m. a cattle owner - UPMT-PED088
Pal: {gau:wain~da.} - UHS-PMD0373

See my notes on Govinda and Krishna

गोविन्दं (govindaM)
Skt: गोविन्दं (govindaM) - Govinda - OnlineSktDict

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{gau} गौ

गौर (gaura)
Skt: गौर (gaura) - white - OnlineSktDict
Skt: गौर gaura  adj. splendorous;  m. fair - SpkSkt
Pal: gora - adj.  white - UPMT-PED088
Pal: {gau:ra.} - UHS-PMD0373

गौरव (gaurava)
Skt: गौरव (gaurava) - glory - OnlineSktDict
Skt: गौरव  gaurava  m. respectability, pride, admiration, dignity, significance, magnitude, regard - SpkSkt

गौरवं (gauravaM)
Skt: गौरवं (gauravaM) - respect - OnlineSktDict

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{gra.} ग्र

Rhoticity : The dental-alveolar sounds with "rolling of the tongue" exemplified in English by the grapheme <r> are not easily differentiated from each other in Burmese-Myanmar, and in many syllables <r> /ɹ/ sounds like <y> /j/. The extreme rolling sound, perhaps like trill /r/, is not met in Burmese. This phenomenon becomes very noticeable in medials of /g/. Thus <gra> can sound like /gja/, /gɹa/ , /gra/ - with increasing "rhoticity". Romabama attempts to represent these three phones as: {gya.} , {gra.} , {gRa.}. We need this differentiation in relating Burmese, Pali and Sanskrit. I am waiting for comments from my peers. - UKT 100607


ग्रन्थालयः (granthaalayaH)
Skt: ग्रन्थालयः (granthaalayaH) - m.  libray - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ग्रन्थालय  granthālaya  m.  library - SpkSkt

ग्रन्थिः (granthiH)
Skt: ग्रन्थिः (granthiH) - (m) gland - OnlineSktDict

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ग्रन्भी (granthii)
Skt: ग्रन्भी (granthii) - a knot, obstruction in the chitrini - OnlineSktDict

ग्रसते (grasate)
Skt: ग्रसते (grasate) - (1 pp) to swallow - OnlineSktDict

ग्रसमानः (grasamaanaH)
Skt: ग्रसमानः (grasamaanaH) - devoruing - OnlineSktDict

ग्रसिष्णु (grasishhNu)
Skt: ग्रसिष्णु (grasishhNu) - devouring - OnlineSktDict

ग्रस्तं (grastaM)
Skt: ग्रस्तं (grastaM) - having been caught/ seized - OnlineSktDict

ग्रह (graha)
Skt: ग्रह (graha) - Planet - OnlineSktDict
Skt: ग्रह  graha  m. planet, alligator - SpkSkt
*Pal: gāha  m. taking, seizure, a demon, crocodile, idea, attach - UPMT-PED086

ग्राह  grāha  m.  seizure [med.] - SpkSkt

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{gra} ग्रा
Not entered in OnlineSktDict

ग्राम  grāma
Skt: ग्राम  grāma  m.  village - SpkSkt
Pal: gāma m. a village, multitude - UPMT-PED085
Pal: {ga-ma.} - UHS-PMD0363

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ग्रामम् (graamam.h)
Skt: ग्रामम् (graamam.h) - (n) village - OnlineSktDict

ग्राहक  grāhaka  adj. prone to; m. buyer, customer, addressee [receiver], catcher - SpkSkt

ग्राहकः (graahakaH)
Skt: ग्राहकः (graahakaH) - (m) customer - OnlineSktDict

ग्राहय (graahaya)
Skt: ग्राहय (graahaya) - (verbal stem) to cause to be caught - OnlineSktDict

ग्राहान् (graahaan.h)
Skt: ग्राहान् (graahaan.h) - things - OnlineSktDict

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ग्राहेण (graaheNa)
Skt: ग्राहेण (graaheNa) - with endeavour - OnlineSktDict

ग्राह्य (graahya)
Skt: ग्राह्य (graahya) - what is to be grasped - OnlineSktDict

ग्राह्यं (graahyaM)
Skt: ग्राह्यं (graahyaM) - accessible - OnlineSktDict

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ग्रीवं (griivaM)
Skt: ग्रीवं (griivaM) - neck - OnlineSktDict

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{gla} ग्ला

ग्लानिः (glaaniH)
Skt: ग्लानिः (glaaniH) - discrepancies - OnlineSktDict

ग्लायति (glaayati)
Skt: ग्लायति (glaayati) - (1 pp) to fade - OnlineSktDict

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UKT notes

Cow-faced posture

From http://www.santosha.com/gomukha.html 100504

"Placing the right ankle on the left side and the left ankle on the right side, makes Gomukha-asana, having the appearance of a cow." - Hatha-yoga-pradipika I.22

"Place both feet on the ground with heels crossed under the buttocks. Sit straight and still, the mouth raised. This is called Gomukha-asana, resembling the mouth of a cow. Gherunda-samhita II.16

Step by step instruction

1. Sit in a crossed-leg position, right leg over left.
2. Spread the legs as far apart as possible without bending the knees.
3. Bend the left knee and place the bottom of the left foot against the inner left thigh. Bring the left heel as close to the perineum as possible. Keep the left knee on the floor.
4. Grasp the right foot with the left hand and keeping the foot on the floor place the heel of the right foot against the front-left portion of the left buttock. The right knee should be directly on top of the left knee.
5. Inhale slowly through the nostrils and raise the right hand over the head and bend the right elbow. Reach behind the back with the left hand and clasp the fingers of both hands (forming an "s" shaped lock).
6. Hold the posture as long as you can comfortably hold the inhale breath. Exhale slowly and then repeat the posture reversing the arms and legs.


This posture stretches the arms, upper back, chest and the sides of the chest and abdomen. As the shoulder blades are stretched backward the lungs are expanded and as the abdominal muscles are lifted the stomach is toned. It helps to relieve neck strain, backache and tight shoulders. The hands, fingers and wrists are strengthened.

Duration and repetition

You can either hold the posture while the breath is held or you can try holding the posture while breathing gently through the nostrils. If you choose to breath, then hold the posture for thirty seconds to a minute. Repeat the gomukha-asana two to three times on each side.


If you are unable to lock the fingers behind the back you may grasp one end of a small piece of cloth in the right hand and the other end of the cloth in the left hand.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Govinda 100504

Govinda and Gopāla are names of Krishna, referring to his youthful occupation as a cowherd. He is regarded as the Supreme Godhead in the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition and also by much of the pan-Hindu tradition. The ancient text Sri Brahma Samhita (5.1) describes Him as the source of all that is and the original cause of all causes.

Gopala Krsna of Krishnaism is often contrasted with Vedism when Krishna asks his followers to desist from Vedic demigod worship such as Indra worship. Thus the character of Gopala Krishna is often considered to be non-Vedic in sone interpretations, while it can also be based on the popular understanding or rather misunderstanding of the Rig Vedic texts.[1]

According to Klaus Klostermaier, Krishna Gopijanavallabha, Krishna the lover of the Gopis, is the latest stage in the historical process resulting in contemporary Krishnaism, being added to the worship of Bala Krishna (the Divine Child Krishna), and the original cult of Krishna-Vasudeva which may date back to several centuries before the Common Era.[2]

Etymology and interpretation

Both names (Govind and Gopala) translate to "cowherd". Sanskrit go means "cow"; pāla and vinda form tatpurusha compounds, literally translating to "finder of cows" and "protector of cows", respectively.

Govinda is a name of Krishna and also appears as the 187th and 539th names in the Vishnu Sahasranama, the 1000 names of Vishnu. [3]

According to Adi Sankara's commentary on the Vishnu Sahasranama, translated by Swami Tapasyananda, Govinda has four meanings:[4]

  1. 1. The sages call Krishna "Govind" as He pervades all the worlds, giving them power.
    2. The Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata states that Vishnu restored the earth that had sunk into the netherword, or Patala, so all the devas praised Him as Govind (Protector of the Land).
    3. Alternatively, it means "He who is known by Vedic words alone".
    4. In the Harivamsa, Indra praised Krishna for having attained loving leadership of the cows which Krishna tended as a cowherd, by saying, "So men too shall praise Him as Govinda."

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, in his commentary on the Bhagavad-Gita, states that Govinda means "master of the senses".[5]

A famous prayer called the Bhaja Govindam was composed by Adi Sankara, a summary of which is; "If one just worships Govinda, one can easily cross this great ocean of birth and death." This refers to the belief that worshipful adoration of Krishna can lead believers out of the cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, and into an eternal blissful life in Vaikuntha, 'beyond this material world' where Govinda resides. Adi Sankara's Bhaja Govindam prayer expresses the value of inner devotion to Krishna.

UKT: End of Wikipedia article.

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Excerpt from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna 100426
My fuller notes in kRRi-054b2-2.htm

Krishna (कृष्ण kṛṣṇa pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] in classical Sanskrit) is a deity worshipped across many traditions in Hinduism in a variety of perspectives. While many Vaishnava groups recognize Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu, other traditions within Krishnaism consider him to be svayam bhagavan, or the Supreme Being.

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Rhotic and non-rhotic accents
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhotic_and_non-rhotic_accents 100611

English pronunciation can be divided into two main accent groups: A rhotic (pronounced /ˈroʊtɨk/, sometimes /ˈrɒtɨk/) speaker pronounces the letter R in hard; a non-rhotic speaker does not pronounce it in hard. That is, rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ in all positions, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce /r/ only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit (see "linking and intrusive R").

In linguistic terms, non-rhotic accents are said to exclude the sound [r] from the syllable coda before a consonant or prosodic break. This is commonly (if misleadingly) referred to as "post-vocalic R".

Development of non-rhotic accents

The earliest traces of a loss of /r/ in English are found in the environment before /s/ in spellings from the mid-15th century: the Oxford English Dictionary reports bace for earlier barse (today "bass", the fish) in 1440 and passel for parcel in 1468. In the 1630s, the word juggernaut is first attested, which represents the Sanskrit word jagannāth, meaning "lord of the universe". The English spelling uses the digraph er to represent a Hindi sound close to the English schwa. Loss of coda /r/ apparently became widespread in southern England during the 18th century; John Walker uses the spelling ar to indicate the broad A of aunt in his 1775 dictionary and reports that card is pronounced "caad" in 1791 (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006: 47).

Non-rhotic speakers [think of Burmese speakers] pronounce an /r/ in red, and most pronounce it in torrid and watery, where R is followed by a vowel, but not in hard, nor in car or water when those words are said in isolation. However, in most non-rhotic accents, if a word ending in written "r" is followed closely by a word beginning with a vowel, the /r/ is pronounced as in water ice. This phenomenon is referred to as "linking R". Many non-rhotic speakers also insert epenthetic /r/s between vowels when the first vowel is one that can occur before syllable-final r (drawring for drawing). This so-called "intrusive R" has been stigmatized, but even speakers of so-called RP [Received Pronunciation] frequently "intrude" an epenthetic /r/ at word boundaries, especially where one or both vowels is schwa; for example the idea of it becomes the idea-r-of it, Australia and New Zealand becomes Australia-r-and New Zealand, the formerly well-known India-r-Office. The typical alternative used by RP speakers is to insert a glottal stop [reason why many Burmese words end in /ʔ/ - i.e. without end consonants being pronounced because of which words such as {ain} and {aim} have the same pronunciation] where an intrusive R would otherwise be placed.[1]

UKT: Epenthesis n.pl. epentheses Linguistics 1. The insertion of a sound in the middle of a word, as in Middle English thunder from Old English thunor . -- AHTD

For non-rhotic speakers, what was historically a vowel plus /r/ is now usually realized as a long vowel. So in Received Pronunciation (RP) and many other non-rhotic accents card, fern, born are pronounced [kɑːd], [fɜːn], [bɔːn] or something similar; the pronunciations vary from accent to accent. This length may be retained in phrases, so while car pronounced in isolation is [kɑː], car owner is [kɑːɹəʊnə]. But a final schwa usually remains short, so water in isolation is [wɔːtə]. In RP and similar accents the vowels /iː/ and /uː/ (or /ʊ/), when followed by r, become diphthongs ending in schwa, so near is [nɪə] and poor is [pʊə], though these have other realizations as well, including monophthongal ones; once again, the pronunciations vary from accent to accent. The same happens to diphthongs followed by R, though these may be considered to end in /ər/ in rhotic speech, and it is the /ər/ that reduces to schwa as usual in non-rhotic speech: tire said in isolation is [taɪə] and sour is [saʊə].[2] For some speakers, some long vowels alternate with a diphthong ending in schwa, so wear may be [wɛə] but wearing [wɛːɹiŋ].

UKT: More in the Wikipedia article.


Rhoticity - by Aaron Schwartz
http://www.articles43.com/article/Rhoticity-50041.html 100611

The term rhoticity originates from the late 1960s and is used by the linguists, to differentiate between two major varieties in modern English: one is that letter r is pronounced as in words like run, rabbit; and another one is that letter r is pronounced as in words crash, or four. Rhoticity was derived from the Greek letter rho (p) which is an equivalent to r.

The variety of different dialects of modern American English was caused by the numerous historical reasons. Basically the difference of rhotic and r-less dialects in modern American community depending on its location was influenced by the social and ethnic groups that immigrated there and influenced the entire process of forming of the particular social groups on different territories as well as it influenced on the local dialects of that territories.

As the research shows the first immigrants from England that came to the New World were primary rhotic speaking, as r-full speech was common through England in the sixteenth century, with the exception of some London areas and southeast England. R-lessness was a feature of an upper-society, and r-less dialects are often found in New England nevertheless, and Boston dialect is r-less.

But the Mid-Atlantic coast and western New England was inhabited by the immigrants from Western parts of England and later by the immigrants from Scotland and Ireland, who to the difference to Southeasters spoke r-full English. Because these settlers formed the primary population of New York, so primary the speech of New Yorkers was rhotic.

Later as the city grew and the immigration rate to the United states increased the American English felt a more influence of settlers whose first language was not English. Immigrants from non-anglophone countries as Germany, Scandinavians, Eastern Europe (especially immigrants from Russia) made a remarkable influence on the dialects spoken in New York today. Basically they also influenced the strong pronunciation of letter r in speech, as it’s common especially in Russian and German colloquial speech. But the tendencies of rhotic and non-rhotic dialects changed in New York from time to time. In the eighteenth century non-rhotic speech distinguished the representatives of upper society as it was in Great Britain and this tendency was common in New England. The spreads of non-rhotic dialects touched the major part of New England, mainly Boston and Connecticut. As the interaction between cities grew and migration inside the country became a usual thing, the language people spoke was influenced as well. Even though that in the seventeenth century the attitude towards British can not be called positive, the majority of the British society norms were observed in New World as well. That’s why the issue of the spread of non-rhotic speech in New York city can be considered to be as the acceptance of the prestigious norm of that time. These tendencies spread on New York in the second part of the nineteenth century, with the rapid development of the city and a great need in labor that coursed an increased growth of immigration from New England and other states basically where southern dialects were spoken.

Even so that the speech of the native New Yorkers was rhotic, it was still influenced strongly by the other dialects, which were more spread in the USA, and as a result of such diverse dialect mixture the New York accent is now one that is not so similar to other spoken on the Eastern coast and is quite well recognized: “New York ... has a distinctive accent, which differs from others more sharply than does any other North American regional accent. Americans in general are more aware of this accent than of any other local accent except possibly American southern accents (and in this they differ from the British, who are usually quite unaware that a New York accent is in any way different from other American accents). ” (Wells, 1982b: 501f.)

The spread of non-rhotic dialect was so remarkable that nowadays most of New Yorkers distinguish from the Standard English by r-less dialect, a pattern when the syllable-final (in this case r) is not pronounced. But still we can not say that in New York English final r is just always dropped, it’s still remains somehow “noticed”. The dropping of r in the speech of New Yorkers and Bostonians is still different.

The differences in the English dialects spoken by the Irish and Scottish immigrants, who formed the major group among other nations arrived to North America, from that one which is considered to be British English now, which is non-rhotic, is the main reason why the modern American English is mainly rhotic.

As many researches show non-rhotic speakers are mostly those who were born before World War 2, and between those who were born after the WW2 are the number of rhotic-speakers is increasing, and as later they were born the more evident that they are rhotic speakers. Rhotic English is considered to be more correct now and is the feature of the upper society, so the growing number of rhotic speakers still has a social isolation.

Jonathan Reese in his article English in North America, highlights the particularities of the New York accent, researched by the German linguists: “It is really curious that Bähr (1974) does not mention this special accent. Geographically, the speech of New York is no longer restricted to the City as it was till the beginning of this century. It comprehends the surrounding counties of New York State and New Jersey, too (Bronstein, 1962: 13).

Within it, there is the greatest range of social divergence found in the whole “new world” (Wells, 1982b: 502).

That is why by time different vowel treatments arose. In original New York City speech vowel + r tended to be produced as a diphthong ending in [i] or []. Diphthongs unknown in StE nor GenAm are a sign of this accent in general. Long vowel often end in schwa ([]), e.g. bath [be], thought [:t]. The [ju:] is mostly pronounced [iu]. Beside the [ai] of time (Bronstein, 1962: 18) and the glottal stop that occurs in lower class dialect, reminding of southern English pronunciation (Wells, 1982b: 515), the omitting of syllable-ending l or d after nasal consonants and the very unusual treatment of the th’es, which tend to be spoken as dental stops, should be emphasized. In opposition to the latter, “Many New Yorkers pronounce the alveolar consonants /t, d, n, l/ with the blade of the tongue rather than with the tip.” (Wells, 1982b: 515).”

The study of William Labov shows the further particularities of rhoticity in New Yorkers speech. His famous study of department store employees’ speech showed the particularities of r pronunciation. If the employees in the fancy stores very often pronounced rs in the both words of the phrase he gave to test the speech: “fourth floor”, while those working in the discount stores nearly didn’t do it at all. His further research found that those whose speech was literary correct and careful, were trying to pronounce all the rs by the American standard English.

The work of William Labov The Social Stratification of English in New York, made in 1966, shows that new York accent is well recognized by many Americans, and is often made fun of, being used for comic effects on television and radio.

As Labov marks, the New Yorkers are not so optimistic about their own accent, and the majority of them have the negative attitude towards speech in New York. It’s mentioned as “linguistic self-hatred” (p.489 in Labov’s work, New Yorkers talk about their manner of speech like “distorted”, “sloppy” and “horrible”. As the study goes on, we clearly see that the majority of questioned consider people living outside the New York area having a negative attitude towards New York accent.

The example to prove this saying, used by Labov to prove it are the words of an old Irish man who says about those living out of New York area: “they think we are the murders”, as well as the majority of middle class women are also shamed of being recognized as New Yorkers(p.486), but in the majority of cases the new Yorker’s speech is well recognized by New Yorkers.

It’s interesting that the most of people questioned think that even those who live outside New York City have a more correct speech than those who live in the city. Those who live outside the New York City, having a more standard speech, are indifferent to the purity of their speech and in the number they feel neutral about accent issues, so much being thought about by New Yorkers.

As the research shows there is quite a contrast in the attitude towards the accent of the different social groups in New York. While the middle class and upper-class representatives are more careful in their speech and are trying to speak the standard American as they can, being rhotic, the rest of the social groups don’t pay a lot of attention to the accent, and don’t have anything common to the wish to change their manner of speech. This attitude towards the manner of speech is well understood and can be explained by the obvious reasons. Most of people from the lower and working class consider city quite good place for living and don’t think about moving to the subs or out of city where the speech is different so they don’t pay that much of attention to it as do ambitious middle-class and upper-class groups.

The New Yorkers manner of speech which often used a subject for jokes and comic effects gives more soil for the speech self-hatred among the New Yorkers. Among the examples of New York accent it’s enough to mention the pronunciation of the word thirty-third which is pronounced toity-toid by the most of New Yorkers. As I’ve mentioned the special feature of New York accent is the absence of non-prevocalic /r/ in their casual speech. For example earl and oil are pronounced in the same way, as well as voice and verse. The pronunciation of non-prevocalic /r/is considered to be the feature of a pure and prestigious speech, but is more used in formal speech and is becoming adopted by the many of New Yorkers nowadays.

New York accent is limited to the territories of the city and some New jersey areas and doesn’t come out of the state of New York, which is showing the absence of any spread of the accent out side the borders of the city. By the words of William Labov in his study he refers to the New York accent as following: “as far as language is concerned, New York City may be characterized as a great sink of negative prestige”. By the further explanation Labov shows that speech common to New York had not expand like speech patters of the other urban areas on the Eastern coast. It’s enough to mention the case with Boston, Philadelphia and Richmond, where at the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the speech patterns expanded on up to 170 miles around the city, but the expansion of the New accent is not obvious.

The research of William Labov makes the conclusion about the failure of the spreading of the New York accent. And it’s core in the negative attitude towards the accent that the inhabitants of the city have. The development of the city and changes in the manner of speech were so diverse and complicated because of both out of the country immigration and migrations of people inside the country that New York accent became an isolated one which has been preserved only on the territory of the city.

Now the tendency is changing to the r-full speech, and as the New Yorkers are in the majority ashamed of their speech they are likely to accept the speaking rules of a new environment, and this process will end with the appearance of the new accent, not so distinguishing from others spoken.

UKT: End of Essay.

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