Published: 2014-09-30

2014-09-20 10:48 PM +0630

TIL (Tun Institute of Learning)

An Academic website dedicated to
Being an educational website it is deemed proper to open with a Pali recitation of
Mora Sutta Paritta - 巴利文孔雀經 - by Rev. Jandure Pagngnananda Thero (釋明高) -
Watch and listen to: 140905
or Mingun Sayadaw reciting Mora Sutta <))
in 140908
Notice: You will see the sound mark <)) in many files: click and listen.
The website on correspondence between four languages.
Bur-Myan (Burmese speech in Myanmar script) : {...}
Eng-Lat (English speech in Latin script) : <...>
Mon-Myan (Mon speech in Myanmar script) : <{...}>
Pal-Myan (Pali speech in Myanmar script), and
Skt-Dev (Sanskrit speech in Devanagari script) : «...» .
Romabama (Burmese speech in Latin script) is ASCII.  Since Bur-Myan fonts are not supported on Internet, I write or sculpt the script using a Lakkwak -- lakkwak.htm  
UKT 140630: Relying on Lakkwak script has dramatically increased the number of pix-in-gif files increasing the cost of maintaining the website on the Internet. To control this increase, beginning from the next update (140831) on the Internet:
#1. I will no longer give the full transcripts from UHS-PMD, but only the entry in Pal-Myan and my translation "UKT from UHS".
#2. Cut pages from A. A. Macdonell's A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary have been removed and stored in TIL Library in folder MAC-CUT-PAGES .
Note 130501: This website originated as a family website of the Tun Family whose members are now spread out in Canada, Myanmar, and Singapore.


Section 1 : Human voice and languages

English phonetics - Eng-phon-indx.htm 
English pronunciation guide - EPG-indx.htm
English pronouncing dictionary - DJPD16-indx.htm
English idioms of native-speakers -- EIDIOM-TXT-indx.htm
English Grammar in Plain Language - EGPE-indx.htm
Human voice, Phonetics and Phonology - indx-HV.htm
Phonetics for Myanmar - UNIL-indx.htm
  (based on online course offered in China by Univ. of Lausanne (UNIL): in TIL format of 2004 used before Unicode. It needs thorough cleaning.)


Section 2 : Myanmar languages

¤  Speaking Mon-Myan Language  -- MV1874-indx.htm - update 140630
based on the following sources:
  1. Learn Mon Yourself : 61 lessons online 
  2. Grammatical notes and Vocabulary of the Peguan Language 
    - Haswell, J.M., American Mission Press, Rangoon, 1874 (hardcopy in TIL lib.), and its sequel
  3. A vocab of English & Peguan with some geographical names 
    - Stevens, E.O., 1896
4. Mon Myanmar Letter Bridge
     - Dr. Mehm Tin Mon, Yangon, 2006, pp.117
5. Basic Method of Teaching Mon Speech and Script
    - Naing Maung Toe (in Bur-Myan), Yangon, 2007 (quote as NMT)

¤ Introduction to Romabama - RBM-intro-indx.htm - update 140630
¤ Romabama on Typewriter (emphasizing ASCII fonts used) - RBM-typewrit-indx.htm
¤ Romabama collection - RBM-COLLECT-indx.htm
   The links within the above group still need cleaning up. -- 121202
¤ Burmese for Foreign Friends - B4FF1-indx.htm
   A teaching program by U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than, ver01, 1991, new ed. with sound files

¤ Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis 1899 - BG1899-indx.htm 
  by A. W. Lonsdale, Rangoon: British Burma Press, 1899 xii, 461, in two parts. 
  Part 1. Orthoepy and orthography; Part 2. Accidence and syntax 
  Note: I will have to go over Lonsdale's work thoroughly
  because it has not been updated for a long time. -- UKT 121212
¤ MLC Burmese Grammar (in Bur-Myan) - BG-MLC-indx.htm
   Vol 1. For Middle school; Vol 2. For High school; Vol 3. For University
   Note: In each folder, there are two files: e.g. BG-MLC1-1.htm (Engl) & BGo1-1.htm (Bur)
¤ MLC Burmese Orthography 1st ed 1986 (in Bur-Myan) - BO-MLC-indx.htm
¤ Dictionary of Pali-derived Myanmar words (in Bur-Myan) - UTM-PDMD.htm
   by U Tun Myint, Univ. of Rangoon Press, 1968, pp 627.
   My older ref. was UTM-PDD. Under consideration.
¤ Addition to TIL library - not linked on the Internet.:
  Notes on the transliteration of Burmese alphabet ... by R.C. Temple, 1876, -- download-pdf
I will have to go over this carefully because it has comparisons to Haswell's Peguan language.


Section 3 : TIL Pali and Sanskrit dictionaries 

UKT note to TIL editor 140702: All files in this section are to be renamed
either as TIL-P or TIL-S to show they are TIL's collection and not from
sources like PTS or Macdonell.

• TIL Pali-English dictionary (in akshara-order) PED-indx.htm 
UKT 140209: Burmese and Pali (and to extent on Sanskrit) are so interwoven that you cannot learn one without learning some words of the other. Listen and watch a video on Theravada Buddhism explained in a classical song known as {té:Boän-mha.}, a favorite song of my father U Tun Pe : 140209
Since Theravada Buddhism in particular, and all Buddhist faiths including Mahayana in general, rests firmly on the Principle of Anatta the opposite of the Principle of Atta aka Self, the Bur-Myan word {nga} /ŋ/ 'I, my, me' referring to Atta is the principle obstacle to all attempts in transcribing the Bur-Myan speech. Listen the above song and keep a look out for the word {ngaa.} - the word with only half eye-blink vowel duration. Hindi and Sanskrit speakers cannot pronounce this sound and they had to substitute it with {na:.} नः //.


Section 4 : Source Dictionaries & Grammars 

Pali dictionaries :

¤ U Myat Kyaw (UMK) & U San Lwin (USL), A Pal-Myan-Engl Dict. of Noble Words of Buddha
- PED-MK-indx.htm - update 140630
Lost for some time, recovered in 2013, and now presented in new format.
   An excellent source of Pal-Myan spellings. Bur-Myan portion by UMK, and
   its rendition by USL may be checked with
   The Student's Pali English dictionary
, by U Pe Maung Tin, 1920.
¤ PTS Pali-English dictionary, 1921, PTS-indx.htm - vowels complete
  (to be checked with A Dictionary of the Pali Language, by R.C. Childers, reprint 2007

Pali Grammars

¤ A Pali grammar on the basis of Kaccayano ({kic~sæÑ:} in Bur-Myan),
  - by Rev. F. Mason, 1868 - PEG-indx.htm - update 130925
  - (on line) 130517 , downloaded 251 pdf pages - PDF 130622
   Rev. Mason quoting Gautama Buddha, "Priests, from among my clerical disciples who are able to
   amplify in detail that which is spoken in epitome, the most eminent is the Great Kachchayano."

¤ Practical grammar of the Pali language, by Charles Duroiselle, 1915, 3rd. ed 1997 by U Dhamminda, Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc., .
or downloaded pdf file - PDF file (link chk 140701)

Sanskrit dictionaries 

¤ Vaman Shivaram Apte  (1858-1892),. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 130222 -- under consideration
¤ H. H. Wilson, 3rd ed. translation of Kalidasa's Megha-Duta (Cloud Messenger), 1867,
   containing a Vocabulary by Francis Johnson, p089-179 (downloaded PDF in TIL library) -- for future work
¤ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English dictionary, 1899. MW-indx.htm - complete
¤ TIL Sanskrit-English dictionary - SED-indx.htm
   (main links checked, and temp. suspended while working on Macdonell)
   A baby learns a language by listening to conversations without knowing the meaning. Listen to
   Sanskrit conversations, संवागमाला - 140821
¤ A. A. Macdonell A Practical Sanskrit dictionary, 1893, TIL version in 4 parts,
  - Preface, Scanned pages, Glossary - MC-indx.htm - update 140930
  - Words beginning with Vowels - MCv-indx.htm - update 140930
  - Words beginning with regular Consonants - MCc-indx.htm - update 140930
  - Words beginning with Approximants - MCa-indx.htm - update 140930
  Augmented with entries from other sources such as:
  - F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary , 1885-1963, vol. 2 (FE-BHS)
  - U Hoke Sein, Pali-Myanmar Dictionary (in Pal-Myan) (UHS-PMD) ,
  - U Hoke Sein, The Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary, (UHS-BEPD)
¤ F. Edgerton, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary ,
  1885-1963, vol. 1 scanned pages, (FE-BHS) - BHS-indx.htm - update 140630
   vol. 2 online, 140319
    (I've shortened some words in above, the next link will take to another format which I am not using)
    - 131115
¤ Goddesses (or Mothers) in Ancient India - by P K Agrawala - mei-tau-indx.htm 
   UKT 140806: The book which I bought in Canada through Amazon is in TIL library.
   It is an important source of info for BEPS work, and will be part of this website.
¤ Structure of Indic scripts in Unicode-4 , included under BHS vol. 1 - indic-indx.htm
¤ Pal-Lat, on PTS dictionary version from pdf version
¤ Reverse Sanskrit Dictionary : Rückläufiges Sanskrit-Wörterbuch
to search for Sanskrit words ending with a certain word or ending
-- 1211223
A downloaded copy of this dictionary in TIL library C:\~~Lib-Skt\Sanskrit\ReverseSktDict\ reverse1.pdf

Sanskrit Grammars :

¤ 130517
  - 130517 (suspended work)
¤ 130911


• TIL English Grammar -  TIL-Gram-indx.htm
  A compilation by U Kyaw Tun (M.S., I.P.S.T., USA) and staff of TIL,
  principal source: HyperGrammar from the Writing Centre of University of Ottawa,
• Essays written for TIL -- E-Essays-indx.htm
-- Nguyen Thi Van Lam, Vinh University, Vietnam, Guest writer for TIL: May 2004-Jul 2007
COMPUTER ASSISTED TEACHING OF ENGLISH (this is now included as a section under ROMABAMA, indx-GPE.htm - 080809, 121123)

GRAMMAR GLOSSARY -- GramGloss-indx.htm
• Grammar Glossary includes items relating to the grammars of Burmese, English, Pali, Sanskrit, etc.
It also embraces topics from Linguistics, Phonetics, and the Human Voice.

The second most important prerequisite for language teachers and students.
This section is a collection of works on applied linguistics from the point of view
of Burmese speaking Myanmars. You will also find teaching ESL to Burmese speakers both inside and outside the country of Myanmar.

LANGUAGE AND MEANING  - lang-mean-indx.htm
LANGUAGE AND RELIGION - lang-relig-indx.htm - update 140430
LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT - lang-thot-indx.htm
Folder name for LANGUAGE AND RELIGION as ban-skt-indx.htm  is changed to lang-relig-indx.htm because there are other files on:
¤ Language problem of primitive Buddhism - lang-probl.htm
¤ Mahabharata - Mahabha.htm
¤ Bhagavagītā - Gita.htm
¤ Early Buddhism and Bhagavagītā - Budd-Gita.htm
¤ Mahayana Buddhism and Vajrayana Buddhism - mahayana.htm

LINGUISTICS - indx-linguistics.htm
Scripts, Brahmi, and other topics.

MYANMAR : a collection of papers now split into the following five
¤ Folk Elements in Buddhism -- flk-ele-indx.htm
¤ General -- myn-indx.htm
¤ Geography, Geology, Fossils -- geo-indx.htm
¤ Prehistory -- prehist-indx.htm
   A new addition, Burma before Pagan by M. Aung-Thwin, has been added
   -- to be uploaded later. UKT 130305
¤ Myanmarpré before the British incursion
   The Burmese Empire a hundred years ago - by Father Sangermano, 1833 
   • Prefaces, John Jardine's Introduction, TIL-collection -- sang-j-indx.htm - update 130925
   • Sangermano's work proper -- sang-s-indx.htm - update 130925
   • As important as John Jardine (Judiciary) was Herbert White (Civil Service - Lt. Governor ((1905–1910) )). His account based on 32 years (1878–1910) of service in Burma  A Civil Servant in Burma, 1913, from 140530
has been downloaded and is in TIL library. See also Wikipedia: 140530

¤ MMPD Burmese-Myanmar Akshara index -- MMPD-indx.htm
   A compilation by U Kyaw Tun, U Pe Than, and staff of TIL. 
¤ Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance -- Agri2000-indx.htm
¤ MMPD Genus-Species Alphabetical index -- MMPD-alph-indx.htm
   changed, and  names given by LèýSeikShin may no longer be current.
   CAUTION: A plant is named by Family/Genus/Species. However, it can have its family and/or genus
     UKT note to TIL editor: the following two indices are so intertwined that to separate them would be
    a major task. Don't meddle with them unless you have at least two assistants to assist you.
• Over 200 species of plants are listed in this DB.
• The compilation is based on publications, both in Bur-Myan and English, which are not readily available
   outside Myanmar. The Bur-Myan (& Romabama) names are in accordance with the names listed
   by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission).
      However, be careful of MLC transcriptions, where the phoneme /ʃ/ pronounced as <sh> is given as
   {ra. ha.hto:}. This is because Bur-Myan Palatal-stop {sa.} cannot take a {ha.hto:}, and MLC has to use
   the Dental-fricative {ra.} /r/ with a {ha.hto:}. This is wrong phonetically. MLC should adopt a new glyph
   to stand for /ʃ/. Otherwise, the Bur-Myan word for 'gold', would continued to be spelled {rhwé} in Bur-Myan.
• The family names have been updated to those given in A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar (Chklist) --by W. J. Kress, R. A. DeFillipps, Ellen Farr, and Daw Yin Yin Kyi, (Revised from the original works by J.H. Lace, R. Rodgers, H.G. Hundley, and U Chit Ko Ko, on the "List of Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Principal Climbers, etc. Recorded from Burma"), Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, 2003, pp 590.Online:
• Some of the Myanmar sources:
- Botanical Names of Myanmar Plants of Importance, an Index in order of Bur-Myan akshara, by Agricultural Department (Planning), Government of Union of Myanmar, 2000, pp 65.
- Medicinal Plants of Burma (LSR) (in Burmese) {lèý-seik-rhing:}, (former name: Agricultural Department, Government of Burma) 1978, pp 513
- Pictorial Herbal Dictionary (in Bur-Myan) by Shin Nagathein, vols. 1 to 4, 1976.
- Burmese Indigenous Medicinal Plants (in English) by Daw Mya Bwin and U Sein Gwan, Pharmacology Research Division, Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health, Rangoon, 1973.

This collection of works was originally created 070724 in London, Ontario, to help me change Romabama from a transliteration to transcription. Now (121205) that Romabama has become a reliable transcription, many files have been put in folders of their own. ROMABAMA COLLECTION folder used to contain the following of which only some are left :
Romabama: Rules for transliteration of Burmese-Myanmar akshara into Latin alphabet
•• Romabama Theory:
¤ The Human Voice ¤ DJPD16 ¤ Phonation types
Note: "Romabama Theory" upgraded moved out as a new folder "Human Voice": the section heading "Romabama Theory" no longer used since 091221.
See under TIL main index:  indx-HV.htm
Priority of Speech
¤ "Speech Versus Writing" ¤ The Dogma of the Priority
Language of Gautama Buddha
¤ The Language Problem of Primitive Buddhism ¤ Edicts of King Asoka ¤  Ashoka the Great
Burmese and English:
¤ Grammar Glossary -- indx-GramGloss.htm
Note: Entered into a new folder on 091221. See under TIL main index: indx-GramGloss.htm
Burmese-Myanmar language:
¤ Grammar 1 ¤ Grammar 2
   The following 3 moved under TIL main index on 121118
¤ Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Burmese Grammar 1899, Part 1)
¤ Orthography 
¤ Burmese For Foreign Friends : Introduction to the language and culture
English-Latin language: (CATE - Computer Assisted Teaching of English)
¤ English idioms
• Outside Myanmarpré, only few knows what a modern Burmese calendar looks like. As I (U Kyaw Tun) grow more aged, I am returning to my roots - Burmese traditional customs and draw on the latent energies of my forefathers, and I for one need a Burmese calendar, even on my trips outside Myanmarpré, to observe the customary holidays of my childhood. What I am giving below is intended only for those outside the Motherland and who have no income such as monks, nuns, and aged men and women who are literally living on charity. See below:

Click to see: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Please respect the copy rights of the authors and publishers.
The moral rights of the author to be identified as author of the material are asserted in accordance with §§.77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This material may be reproduced without the consent of the author, in part or in whole in any manner and in any medium subject only to the two following conditions: (a) no charge shall be made for the copy containing the work or the excerpt, (b) a copy of this notice shall precede the work or the excerpt. --- Based on:


U Kyaw Tun and Daw Than Than - update 130928
• Founder of TIL
• Retired Professor of Chemistry
• Interests: Linguistics. Chemistry and Chemical Technology.
  Computer and Internet Tech
Daw Than Than (1931-2004)
• Co-founder of TIL
• Retired Instructor in Chemistry
• Painter
• Interests: Than's Gallery: Room 1 | Room 2 | Room 3
[UKT 130928: Daw Than Than's home page moved into UKT folder. ]
Who we are : more about the family and
read a poem by Daw Than Than: the Mother's wish
who knew she was going to die shortly.
[UKT 130928: moved into UKT folder.]

Dr. Zin Tun
• National Research Council Canada
• Interests: Physics. Neutron scattering
See a list of publications by Dr. Zin Tun from 1982 to the present (2012) is included.

Daw Nini Tun
• Technical Manager, TIL Computing and Language Centre, Yangon, Myanmar
• Interests: Sample of webpages designed by TIL team in Yangon.
   Teaching of Biology at high school level
Distance Education -- Daw Nini Tun, Daw Thetthet Theinthan
  Sample of teaching biology on Internet 

Maung Kan Tun

Maung Thit Tun
Tun family home in Canada




U Khin Maung Latt
• Lecturer and author

Daw Khin Myo Chit
• Author - See Biographical sketch by her son Dr. Khin Maung Win
• Some publications:
  Her Infinite Variety and other stories - preface
  Stories and Sketches of Myanmar - preface
  Thirteen Carat Diamond and other stories - preface

See: Tun family home in Canada
Update: 2014-09-20 10:48 PM +0630 - Canada home - Yangon office - no longer working

End of TIL file